Neural 1 - Neural 1 Anatomy and Function Central Nervous...

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Neural 1- Anatomy and Function Central Nervous system: Spinal cord surrounded by vertebral column Cerebral spinal fluid o acellular – no cells afferent (incoming to a point of reference) – sending messages to the brain via the central nervous system efferent (outgoing from a point of reference) – come off of the spinal cord and go to a muscle or gland and cause action brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) – spinal cord and all of the nerves motor neurons (causing something to move, controls glands, efferent), sensory neurons, o Motor neurons somatic nervous system (voluntary movement), automatic nervous system (involuntary responses), sympathetic division (flight or fight), parasympathetic (rest or digest- also called feed or breed) Nervous system – fast acting short lived means of communication Contrast to endocrine system – slow acting long lived Two types of cells Neurons – receive stimuli and transmit action potentials o Cell body – soma o Dendrites – input from other neurons o Axons – carry messages away from body Glial cells – support and protect o Without neurons could not work o 5 types Schwann cells – surround axons of all peripheral nerve fibers , form the myelin sheath Oligodendrocytes - form myelin sheath around central axons producing white matter of central nervous system Astrocytes - cover capillaries of brain to form the blood brain barrier and help regulate passage of molecules from blood to brain (protects brain) Ependymal - line the ventricles or brain cavities and central canal of spinal cord Microglia – phagocytic amoeboid cells in central nervous system that remove foreign and degenerate material from the brain Neural 2- Synapse and action potentials
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The synapse (chemical synapse)- type of junction where chemical is release across a gap Action potential (nerve impulse) – unidirectional, o When comes down ends and is a signal for vesical to fuse with cell membrane and release chemical – releases neural transmitter o Neural transmitter diffuses across a gap – synapsis clef and binds to receptors that is a message for that membrane to depolarize and message is sent down along dendrite ( postsynaptic cell ) Interstitial fluid in synapsis cleft o Neurotransmitters- once bound to postsynaptic membrane – 2 fates Degraded by enzyme Pumped away from area o Synaptic bouton- a specialized area within an axon where neurotransmitters enclosed in small membrane bound spheres called synaptic vesicles o When a membrane is at rest often – 70 mV o Threshold -55mV – action potential generated o +35mV- repolarization o Below resting – hyperpolarization
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