BIO 1510 F2016 Lecture 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life

BIO 1510 F2016 Lecture 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life

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The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Chapter 3
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2 Carbon Framework of biological molecules consists primarily of carbon bonded to Carbon O, N, S, P or H Can form up to 4 covalent bonds Hydrocarbons – molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen Nonpolar Functional groups add chemical properties
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3
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4
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5 Isomers Molecules with the same molecular or empirical formula Structural isomers Stereoisomers – differ in how groups attached Enantiomers mirror image molecules chiral D-sugars and L-amino acids
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6
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Macromolecules Polymer – built by linking monomers Monomer small, similar chemical subunits
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Macromolecules
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9 Dehydration synthesis Formation of large molecules by the removal of water Monomers are joined to form polymers Hydrolysis Breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water Polymers are broken down to monomers
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10 Carbohydrates Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Empirical formula (CH 2 O) n C-H covalent bonds hold much energy Carbohydrates are good energy storage molecules Examples: sugars, starch, glucose
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11 Monosaccharides 1. Simplest carbohydrate 2. 6 carbon sugars play important roles 3. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 4. Fructose is a structural isomer of glucose 5. Galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose 6. Enzymes that act on different sugars can distinguish structural and stereoisomers of this basic six-carbon skeleton
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12
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13 C 6 H 12 O 6
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14 Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis Used for sugar transport or energy storage Examples: sucrose, lactose, maltose
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