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NameDr. DodsonHistory 1053/24/2016Gender InequalityGender inequality is one of the biggest issues our society faces in today’s world. However, gender difference and inequality is by no means a new societal issue, different societies have been dealing with inequality for generations. There are examples of gender difference and inequality being socially constructed, scientifically quantified, and institutionally justified throughout history. The social construction of gender difference and inequality is shown in Benjamin Cowan’s “Sex and the Security state: Gender, Sexuality. And ‘Subversion’ at Brazil’s Escola Superior de Guerra”, while institutionally justified inequality is exemplified in lectures as well as in Kimberly Gauderman’s “Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito”.After Brazil became under new rule in the mid-1960s, the issue of gender and sexism fell into an area regarded by the Escola Superior de Guerra (ESG) as “subversion”. The ESG was on a 20-year campaign the intimidate and silence anyone it felt was a threat or opposition to their regime, also called subversives.1Tens of thousands of Brazilian citizens were taken into custody for being part of the “subversive” category. This was used as a scare tactic for the rest of the population that if they did not follow the government’s ideology, that they would be punished accordingly.2The military attempted to use fashion and youth culture to identify sexual “subversives” not following a masculine code. Examples include anyone who looked gay or was 1 Cowan, Benjamin. 2007. “Sex and the Security State: Gender, Sexuality, and "subversion" at Brazil's Escola Superior De Guerra, 1964-1985”. Journal of the History of Sexuality16 (3). University of Texas Press: 459–81.2 Cowan, Benjamin. 2007. “Sex and the Security State: Gender, Sexuality, and "subversion" at Brazil's Escola Superior De Guerra, 1964-1985”. Journal of the History of Sexuality16 (3). University of Texas Press: 459–81.
wearing clothes traditionally worn by the opposite gender, such as a woman wearing pants or a man wearing a feminine outfit. The military was actually trained to be able to spot these subversives, being taught particular stereotypes that subversives could possibly embody as well as learning the areas that subversives would usually congregate in. One attempt to masculinize