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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Digital Age Martin Hilbert (Dr., PhD) Introduction to the Digital Age Source: The Economist, Hilbert (2011); Martin Hilbert (Dr., PhD) - Pony Express started to join the East and West of the US 1876 Aristotle (~350 B.C.) - When president Lincoln was elected in 1960, the information travel from the east to the west at “the speed of the horse’s breathe”. (7days and 17 hours) Abraham Lincoln (1860) Image source: Wikipedia commons. 1 The global telecommunications infrastructure analogies with regard to your nervous system, don’t seem do far-fetched during the recent decade or so Aristotle (~350 B.C.) Abraham Lincoln (1860) Image source: Wikipedia commons. Paul Butler (2010), Facebook.com The world’s technological capacity to store computer and communicate information has reach these mind- boggling orders of magnitude with which mother nature processes information ex. All the world technological storage combined can store more information than is stored in the DNA of the 60 trillion cells of a human body Paul Butler (2010), Facebook.com; The Economist, Hilbert (2011); ex. All the world general-purpose computers combined can execute more information per second than a human brain can execute nerve impulses per second avg. min. 2013: - Digital footprints now become visible 350,000 tweets 400,000 photos Flickr, Shapchat, Instagram, Facebook 700,000 Facebook posts 2,000,000 Google searches 11 hours of audio SoundCloud 100 hours of video YouTube 8am 9am 10am Source: Paul Butler (2010), Facebook.com; Wikipedia Commons TED-Ed. (2013). Visualizing the world’s Twitter data - Jer Thorp. 2 Global information storage capacity in optimally compressed MB - After year 2000, the digital share is exploding and capturing the vast majority of the world’s stored informtion - doesn’t mean that analog information (in form of paper or analog tape) doesn’t grow anymore - Back in the 80s, less than 1% of the world’s stored information 2002: the beginning of the digital age 50% % digital: 1% 3% 25 % was in digital form. More than 99% was in analog form ex. papers 94 % Source: Washington Post, based on Hilbert and Lopez, 2011 or analog video tape - Year 2002*: beginning of the digital age, because the first time humankind stored more information on digital format as on analog format What is Information and Communication Technology (ICT)? Digital convergence on the bit Communication Smoke & Trumpet, Fire Signals, horns Drums, etc. 100 B.C. News paper 1502 Electro Chappe magnetic Telegraph Telegraph 1794 1837 Radio Tele- broadphone casting 1876 1918 TV transmission 1927 Smoke signals: one of the first communication technology Cellular 1973 3 Digital convergence on the bit 3 Technological trajectories: - Communication Technology (transmit through spaces) Communication Smoke & Trumpet, Fire Signals, horns Drums, etc. 100 B.C. News paper 1502 Electro Chappe magnetic Telegraph Telegraph 1794 1837 - Storage technology (transmit through time, from now to Radio Tele- broadphone casting 1876 1918 TV transmission 1927 later usage Cellular 1973 - Computation technology (transform and compute information) ・Also storage information, but on a very small level Digital convergence on the bit Communication Smoke & Trumpet, Fire Signals, horns Drums, etc. 100 B.C. News paper 1502 Electro Chappe magnetic Telegraph Telegraph 1794 1837 Radio Tele- broadphone casting 1876 1918 TV transmission 1927 Cellular 1973 Digital convergence on the bit Digital paradigm: the result of the fact that these three previously separate technological trajectories, converge on binary digit, Communication Smoke & Trumpet, Fire Signals, horns Drums, etc. 100 B.C. News paper 1502 Electro Chappe magnetic Telegraph Telegraph 1794 1837 Claude Shannon (1948) Radio Tele- broadphone casting 1876 1918 TV transmission 1927 Cellular 1973 that’s where the digital come from on the bit - the bit information is digitalized - the most fundamental way to express information is at the bit, the entropy of the source - We now store, communicate, and compute information media frictionless at the same platform - Digital convergent or ICT convergent join these three previously separate technological trajectories that opens up a whole new mirror of possiilities 4 What is the role of ICT for social change? ICT are always there… - 60% of our time using media form of communication - less than 30% face-to-face Source: Center for the Digital Future. (2014). 2014 Digital Future Project: Surveying the Digital Future, Year Twelve. USC, Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future. Retrieved from - 80% of the workforce in the U.S. uses the internet for their jobs at home …ICT are everywhere… 100 Mobile‐cellular telephone subscriptions 90 Per 100 inhabitants 95.5 Individuals using the Internet 80 Source: ITU, 2014; Center for the Digital Future. (2014). 2014 Digital Future Project: Surveying the Digital Future, Year Twelve. USC, Annenberg Digital Future. Fixed‐telephone subscriptions 70 Active mobile‐broadband subscriptions 60 Fixed (wired)‐broadband subscriptions 50 40.4 40 32.0 30 15.8 20 10 9.8 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 5 …but is it the most important thing out there? What is more important than ICT? Make a list! What is more important than ICT? - Food, shelter, health, security, friends, love… Source: Wikipedia Commons, Flickr Commons, Pixabay Commons; frikipix; ThisOneSite.com So what’s the fuzz about the digital revolution ? "You however, students of this world, never forget that behind every technology is somebody who is using it and this somebody is a society... And that technology is a weapon, and whoever feels that the world is not as perfect as it should be, should fight, so that the weapon of technology is used to the benefit of society... so that we can build the society of the future, no matter what name it may be given” ERNESTO (Che) GUEVARA DE LA SERNA 29 August, 1963 Closing address to the International Meeting of Architect Students 1963. …as a means to the more important ends! What is more important than ICT? Make a list! ex. we can use mobile phone to find the cheapest place to eat ex. increase the productivity of agriculture ex. increase the safety of transportation system ex. enhance education ex. maintain friendship through communication technology Source: Wikipedia Commons, Flickr Commons, Pixabay Commons; frikipix; ThisOneSite.com 6 Technological determinism vs. Social construction of technology outcome tech outcome GOOD BAD “Technology is neither good nor outcome nor is it neutral” (!) - Technological determinism: technology determines the outcome ex. “the internet implies freedom and democracy” (good!) ex. “the internet implies informational dictatorship” (bad!) - Technology is neither good nor bad.* It is socially constructed, …just like any other tool… think about the hammer: ex. A hammer is just a tool We shape our tools and our tools shape us! Source: Kranzberg, M. (1986). Technology and History: “Kranzberg’s Laws.” Technology and Culture, 27(3), 544. McLuhan, M., & Lapham, L. H. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. ex. A gun doesn’t kill people. Only people kill people. Social construction: - Digitalization by itself does not have a pre-determined outcome - We have a social responsibility to shape digitalization Guiding policies ensure the technology is used for the intended purpose How can we think about the interplay among technology, society and policy? 1st dimension Infrastructure - Infrastructure: tangible (everything you can touch) Generic services Capabilities, skills, culture ex. computer, mobile phone (hardwares) e-education e-health e-business e-government - Generic services: intangible (cannot be touched) ex. software, apps, email services - Capabilities, skills, culture changes (human capital) ex. Uses, adapts, and applies technology for our purposes Source: Hilbert, Martin, ECLAC, 2002; Hilbert, M. (2012). Towards a Conceptual Framework for ICT for Development: Lessons Learned from the Latin American “Cube Framework.” ITID, 8(4), 243–259. 3rd dimension - policy instrument - the two basic kinds of intervention that you can execute in a system ex. social system 2ne dimension - electronic networks (E-sectors) - For future generation, it will be completely natural 7 e-health e-business Policy instruments e-government Generic services Capabilities, skills, culture Development of ICT e-education Infrastructure ICT for Development Source: Hilbert, Martin, ECLAC, 2002; Hilbert, M. (2012). Towards a Conceptual Framework for ICT for Development: Lessons Learned from the Latin American “Cube Framework.” ITID, 8(4), 243–259. Infrastructure - Several government have used the framework to design Generic services Capabilities, skills, culture their national policy agenda and e-education e-health e-business e-government - The first generation of the intergovernmental action plan for digital development in Latin which has been signed by 30 governments, uses this cube framework as a reference of how to structure the digital development action plan Source: Hilbert, Martin, ECLAC, 2002; Hilbert, M. (2012). Towards a Conceptual Framework for ICT for Development: Lessons Learned from the Latin American “Cube Framework.” ITID, 8(4), 243–259. Infrastructure ex. only look at the infrastructure layer and ask about the installation of broadband 8 Infrastructure ex. What kind of specific infrastructure do you need for Generic services Capabilities, skills, culture e-government development e-government ex. postive and negative feedback you can use to implement and foster e-government development - To create incentives for ICT infrastructure development for ICT infrastructure Incentives & financing in local e-government ex. connectivity of municipalities in e-government Infrastructure Cross- cutting intersection Generic Services Regulation & legislation - ex. ask about regulation and legislation for all kind of apps Generic Services affects all e-sectors that affect all kind of e-sectors, for examples, privacy legislation 9 Infrastructure e-education e-health e-business e-government Generic services Capabilities, skills, culture Source: Hilbert, Martin, ECLAC, 2002; Hilbert, M. (2012). Towards a Conceptual Framework for ICT for Development: Lessons Learned from the Latin American “Cube Framework.” ITID, 8(4), 243–259. What aspects will we cover in this course? Global Digital Development week 2 10 Global Digital Development week 2 e-Readiness Indices 1. ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI) Source: Minges, 2005, ECLAC United Nations, 11 e-Readiness Indices 1. ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI) 2. Digital Access Index (DAI) 3. Digital Opportunity Index (DOI) 4. Index of Knowledge Societies (IKS) 5. Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) 6. Network Readiness Index (NRI) 7. Technology Achievement Index (TAI) 8. UNCTAD Index of ICT Diffusion 9. UN PAN E-Readiness Index 10. World Bank ICT Index. 11. Orbicom Digital Divide Index 12. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) e-readiness 13. Composite index of technological capabilities (ArCo) Source: Minges, 2005, ECLAC United Nations, Technological Change week 3 Sources: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center; Lord Karnage. (2009). Classic Game Room HD - PONG for Nintendo DS / GBA. 12 13 Source: destinygame. (2014). Official Destiny Live Action Trailer – Become Legend. Rockstar Games. (2013). Grand Theft Auto V: Official Gameplay Video. Social Evolution week 4 Our […] age: • “Digital Age” (Negroponete, 1995) • “Post-industrial society” • “Fifth Kondratiev” • “Information Society” • “Network Society” (Bell, 1973) (Perez, 1983) (Webster, 1995) (Castells, 1996) • “Age of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)” (Freeman and Louça, 2001) Long waves through General Purpose Technologies Stone-age: 2.000.000 – 3.300 B.C. = 1.996.700 years Bronze-age: 3.300 – 1.200 B.C. = 2.100 years Iron-age: 1.200 – 586 B.C. = 614 years 14 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) How does society evolve? Progress Automobile, aircraft J.A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) Electrical engineering Steam-engines Water wheels Stone tools Bronze tools Iron tools 2,000,000bc 3,300bc 1,200bc 1780 1848 1895 1940 1973 20?? TIME Source: Hilbert and Cairo, 2008; Cristopher Freeman et al. As time goes by, 2001. Schumpeter, (1939). Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Hist., & Stat. Analysis of the Capitalist Process. Digitalization and its Effects weeks 5&6 Digitalization Digital Footprint Timeless Time Death of Distance Poly-directionality Netw ork Structure Netw ork Externalities Economies of Scale Media Richness Selection Exposure Selection Algorithmification: A.I. etc. 15 Day of a digital life of a college student: ‐of‐digitization Digitalization & Amazon: ‐ technologymaking‐the‐world‐smaller Big Data & e‐Science week 7 Source: ; De Montjoye, et al. (2013). Unique in the Crowd. Scientific Reports, 3. Frias‐Martinez & Virseda (2013). Cell Phone Analytics: Scaling Human Behavior Studies into the Millions. ITID, 9(2), pp. 35–50. 16 Sources: Bohemia Interactive Simulations, ; TRANSIMS: ; Epstein, Computational Social Science week 8 Globalization & Human Development 17 Unfinished globalization global flow of capital, without global mobility or social systems, with partial global governance Digital Divide week 9 Diffusion on networks Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. The Center for Connected Learning (CCL) and Computer-Based Modeling. Retrieved from 18 Telecommunication capacity of countries Telecom: OECD vrs. the rest of world (fixed and mobile Internet and telephony CAPACITY per capita) 100101 000101 100001 50 kbps ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 5 kbps 700 kbps ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 50 kbps = 10 1001011010101010 1010000011010111 1011010100101011 1010110100101010 1010100111111000 1010111000110101 0100000111000111 = 14 100101 000101 100001 1001 0011 2001 2006 Source: Hilbert, M. (2013), Technological information inequality as an incessantly moving target: The redistribution of info. and communication capacities between 1986 and 2010. Journal of the Assoc. for Info. Science and Technology. Public Policies & Private Strategies week 10 Digital Strategy Building 2005 2010 2007 Guiding Principles World Summit Short term Action Plan Río de Janeiro 2005 Long term goals World Summit Short term Action Plan San Salvador 2008 Benchmarking and evaluation El Salvador 2007 2015 Short term Action Plan Lima 2010 Benchmarking and evaluation Peru 2010 Benchmarking and evaluation Mexico 2015 19 …and now something completely different: Study orientation, learning recommendations, and course philosophy What this course is about and what not: It is NOT about: Testing how “smart” you are Teaching you methods or math It IS about: • Preparing you to work more effectively and efficiently in a professional setting: What’s the difference between a junior and a senior professional? Filling up the “hard disk” = work = hours (sorry: no shortcut available…) Developing an information filter in an information overloaded world Knowledge application: Making sure the content is correct Making sure the content is meaningful to you Making sure that the content is actively available 20 …just a friendly reminder: input 1 = money How much does it cost you / your sponsor to take this class? …just a friendly reminder: input 1 = money 180 / 4 years = 45 credits per year $ 35,000 per year / 45 credits per year ≈ $ 775 per credit $775 * 4 credits = $ 3,100 per 4 credit course! more than $ 300 per week! …just a friendly reminder: input 1 = money 180 / 4 years = 45 credits per year $ 35,000 per year / 45 credits per year ≈ $ 775 per credit $775 * 4 credits = $ 3,100 per 4 credit course! more than $ 300 per week! 21 …just a friendly reminder: input 2 = time How much time do you spend per week on a 4 credit class? …just a friendly reminder: input 2 = time Suggestions: how to get most out of your time & money! Lectures: optimize your time investment into lectures Concentrate and listen fully! Actively take notes and already check for understanding 22 Suggestions: how to get most out of your time & money! Lectures: optimize your time investment into lectures Concentrate and listen fully! Actively take notes and already check for understanding Studying: learning means reviewing Review your notes immediately after finishing Suggestions: how to get most out of your time & money! Lectures: optimize your time investment into lectures Concentrate and listen fully! Actively take notes and already check for understanding Studying: learning means reviewing Review your notes immediately after class Study groups Ask questions on the Q&A platform Assignments: excellence is not a skill or trait, it’s a habit Take them seriously 23 Rating Characteristics Full Points The author responds to all aspects of the assigned question in a consistently forceful manner that is not only thoughtful, but also thought‐provoking. The post is focused and coherently integrates innovative examples with formal concepts. The author does not leave any doubt on how the judiciously‐chosen examples relate to the concepts treated by the question. The post demonstrates that the author understands the concepts and is able to negotiate their complexities in a provocative, controlled and insightful manner. The author considers multiple perspectives when appropriate. The entry reflects in‐depth engagement with the topic. The comment is written eloquently, does not contain grammatical errors or typos, and is written in an engaging way that opens up new substantial discussions and collective conversation. Points discounted The author does not display maturity in sentence variety, grammar, spelling, and usage. Surface errors are common, which distracts the reader from following the argument. The post is not reasonably focused and does not respond fully to all aspects of the question. The author mentions examples, but does not explain how they relate to the concepts treated by the question. Connections between ideas are suggested rather than explained in an illustrative manner. Though examples and new insights are offered, they are not fully developed. The post simply rehashes previous comments or comments made elsewhere, and displays no evidence of active and creative engagement with the topic. Learn how to read efficiently! Normal book page = 250 words per page Fine-print essay = 450 words per page 450 * 40 pages = 18,000 words per week Meaningful tests? How can a multiple choice test prepare you for the real world? What questions will NOT appear on the exam: Even so you do not really know what it means, which one of the following concepts have you vaguely heard being mentioned in class or saw in one of the readings. Don't stop and think about it, simply put a check-mark on the concept you remember and move on quickly. a) Pink elephants b) Asymptotic equipartition property c) Technological Determinism 24 Suggestions: how to get most out of your time & money! Lectures: optimize your time investment into lectures Concentrate and listen fully! Actively take notes and already check for understanding Studying: learning means reviewing Review your notes immediately after class Study groups Ask questions on the Q&A platform Assignments: excellence is not a skill or trait, it’s a habit Take them seriously 25 ...
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