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Unformatted text preview: based on the handout prepared by Dr Y. Aida #1 Expressions and strategies to tell an effective story 1) A story is effective when: a) The listener clearly understands what happened the speaker; b) The listener appreciates the point of the story; c) The story ends before the listener loses interest. Organizing the story: Used to finish up one part of the story (describing a particular scene / event, describing a central character in the story) and move onto the next part. 2) Often used to provide the background information and to signal that the information is not central to the development of the story itself but may include details about the qualities, actions, thoughts or feelings of the speaker, or some other character in the story. Used to signal to the listener that "it is time to pay attention," and "the point is coming." By using to communicate that something significant -- and often unexpected -- is about to happen in the story, the speaker creates a sense of tension and / or expectation for the listener that is usually resolved in the clauses immediately following . Used when the speaker relates information that was important to the particular situation, action, or event at the time it occurred. Effective for showing intense involvement and recreating feelings or emotions (shock/ surprise; annoyance/ irritation; fear; awe) associated with a given point in the story. (earphone) (sharp-eyed) ...(past) Used to signal that a surprising or unexpected event is about to occur in the story. Because of the strong emotional reactions associated with such events, they tend to be reported with . Providing background information & Shifting back to the main topic may be used to 1) introduce a topic of conversation; 2) elicit agreement from the other person about something one has said: 3) show agreement with the other person about what they have said; or 4) provide an evaluation of or reaction to what the other speaker has said. #2 Structure of Story (personal narrative) 1) Opening: 2) Setting (orientation): 3) Initiating events: 4) The main event: Express intent to tell a personal narrative story. Establish the shared world with the listener. Provide necessary background information for the listener to understand what is going on in the story. Tell what happened at the beginning, which serves as a gradual pathway to the main event (climax). Describe the main event (climax) that is often an unexpected, surprising event. 5) Bringing of a story to a close (resolution) Provide information on what happened at the end. 6) The speaker's response and feeling to the events: The speaker tells how he/she felt about the event and how the event has affected him/her. #3 Getting the Listener's Attention (to Tell a Story): Opening 1. at the beginning of an utterance implies that what follows is new information to the listener, which is often given in a form of a story. 2. indicates that the speaker is going to tell something important that the listener does not know yet. It is often used at the beginning of a personal story. 3. Asking if the listener knows something is a common way to indicate that the speaker wants to talk about the topic more. 4. signals that the speaker needs to provide some piece of information that is not directly relevant to the story, but is necessary for the hearer to understand the significance of what the speaker is about to say. 5. 1 2 1 ( , when used at the outset of a story, indicates that the speaker has more to say. #4 Making the Point of the Story Clear Process toward the climax: describes the series of actions that lead up to the climax. signals that the main point is coming. signals that a surprising or unexpected event is about to occur in the story. recreates feelings or emotions associated with the story. How do you build up the story? 1) 2) 3) ( shooting stars) With closing : the speaker's reaction to the event Positive: Negative: Other: Comments/evaluations: Intro: Background: Climax: Reaction: Intro: Background: Climax: Reaction: #5 Providing background information & Shifting back to the main topic: 1) - a) ABC (rice ball) ABC ABC 1) - b) A: B: A: B: A: 2) - a) ABC ABC 7-11 ABC 2) - b) A: B: A: B: A: #6 Planning the content of the story I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (Examples of personal stories.) (place you traveled) (embarrassed) II. Story Check List (Jot down in English) 1. What is your story about? 2. Why is this story memorable or significant to you? 3. What kind of background information do you need to provide in order to make the story easy to understand for the listener? Who were involved? When and where did this happened? Other information? 4. How does your story begin? 5. What was the initial event of the story? 6. What happened after that? 7. What is the climax of the story? 8. What was your response to that? How did you feel ? 9. Final thought or feeling? ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2008 for the course JPN 412L taught by Professor Suito during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas.
- Fall '07