Chapter 5 - Perception & Decisioin Making - BB

Chapter 5 - Perception & Decisioin Making - BB -...

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Perception and Individual Decision Making Chapter FIVE
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What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? People’s behavior is People’s behavior is based on their based on their perception of what perception of what reality is, not on reality is, not on reality itself. reality itself. The world as it is The world as it is perceived is the world perceived is the world that is behaviorally that is behaviorally important. important. Perception A process by which  individuals organize and  interpret their sensory  impressions in order to  give meaning to their  environment.
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Factors That Influence Perception E X H I B I T 5–1
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Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Attribution Theory When individuals observe  behavior, they attempt to  determine whether it is  internally or externally  caused.
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Attribution Theory E X H I B I T 5–2
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Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate  the influence of external factors  and overestimate the influence  of internal factors when making  judgments about the behavior of  others. In general, we tend to blame the person first, not the situation.
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Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to  attribute their own successes  to internal factors while putting  the blame for failures on  external factors. Thought: When student gets an “A” on an exam, they often say they studied hard. But when they don’t do well, how does the self serving bias come into play? Hint: Whose fault is it usually when an exam is “tough”?
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Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the  basis of their interests, background, experience,  and attitudes.
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Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression  about an individual on the  basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that  are affected by comparisons with other  people recently encountered who rank higher  or lower on the same characteristics
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