discoveringpsych7e_lectureslides_ch08.pptx-1

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MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Chapter Eight
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Motivation and Emotion Motivation: Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior. Emotion: a psychological state involving subjective experience, physiological response, and behavioral or expressive response.
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Motivation and Emotion There are three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation is demonstrated by initiation or production of behavior. Intensity is seen in the greater vigor of the response that usually accompanies motivated behavior. Persistence is demonstrated by continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal.
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Sharon King Grimm Motivational Concepts and Theories Instinct Theories People are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of evolutionary programming. In the 1920s, instinct theories had fallen out of favor as an explanation of human motivation, primarily because of the the theories lacked explanatory power. The general idea that human behaviors are innate and genetically influenced did remain important.
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James’s List of Human Instincts Attachment Resentment Fear Curiosity Disgust Shyness Rivalry Sociability Greediness Bashfulness Suspicion Secretiveness Hunting Cleanliness Play Modesty Shame Love Anger Parental Love
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Drive Theories: Biological Needs as Motivators Drive A need or internal motivational state Drive Theories Behavior motivated by desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs and desire to restore homeostasis Drive State Created by unmet biological needs Drives are triggered by internal mechanisms of homeostasis Homeostasis Body monitors and maintains internal states Tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium Cannot explain all drives re replaced by drive theories. Instinct theories were replaced by drive theories.
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Incentive Motivation: Goal Objects as Motivators Incentive theories Behavior is motivated by “pull” of external goals, such as rewards, money, or recognition. Incentive theories based on learning principles from Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and Tolman. Tolman stressed importance of cognitive factors and expectation of goals in motivation.
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Arousal Theory: Optimal Stimulation as a Motivator People experience both very high levels of arousal and very low levels of arousal as being quite unpleasant. When arousal is too low, we experience boredom and become motivated to increase arousal. When arousal is too high, we seek to reduce arousal in a less-stimulating environment.
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Arousal Theory: Sensation Seeking The optimal level of arousal varies from person to person; it is especially evident in sensation seekers, who find the heightened arousal of novel experiences very pleasurable.
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  • Summer '09
  • WOODRUFF,D
  • facial expressions, Body weight, subjective experience

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