Acid - pp-semi-vandalismsmall=yes otheruses otheruses4acids...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Sheet1 Page 1 pp-semi-vandalismsmall=yes otheruses otheruses4acids in chemistrythe drugLysergic acid diethylamide redirectAciditythe noveletteAcidity (Novelette) Acids and Bases Err:510 mainacid-base reaction theories * '''Arrhenius''': According to this definition developed by the SwedenSwedish chemist Svante Arrhenius, an acid is a substanc e * '''Brønsted-Lowry''': According to this definition, an acid is a proton (hydrogen nucleus) donor and a base is a proton accepto r * '''solvent-system definition''': According to this definition, an acid is a substance that, when dissolved in an autodissociating s o * '''Lewis''': According to this definition developed by Gilbert N. Lewis, an acid is an electron-pair acceptor and a base is an ele c Although not the most general theory, the Brønsted-Lowry definition is the most widely used definition. The strength of an acid m Err:510 Bronsted-Lowry acids: *Are generally sour in taste *Strong or concentrated acids often produce a stinging feeling on mucous membranes *React to indicators as follows: turn blue litmus and methyl orange red, do not change the color of phenolphthalein *Will react with metals to produce a metal salt and hydrogen *Will react with a base to produce a salt and water *Will react with a metal oxide to produce water and a salt *Will conduct electricity, depending on the degree of dissociation *Will denature proteins Strong acids and many concentrated acids are dangerous, causing severe burns for even minor contact. Acids are corrosive. G Err:510 In the classical naming system, acids are named according to their anions. That ionic suffix is dropped and replaced with a ne w Classical naming system: !Anion Prefix !Anion Suffix !Acid Prefix !Acid Suffix !Example - per ate per ic acid perchloric acid (HClO&lt - ate
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Sheet1 Page 2 ic acid chloric acid (HClO&lt - ite ous acid chlorous acid (HClO&lt - hypo ite hypo ous acid hypochlorous acid (HClO) - ide hydro ic acid hydrochloric acid (HCl) Err:509 In water the following chemical equilibriumequilibrium occurs between a weak acid (HA) and water, which acts as a base: The acidity constant (or acid dissociation constant) is the equilibrium constant for the reaction of HA with water: Note on terms used: * The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of hydronium. This will depend on the concentration and nature o Err:510 Polyprotic acids are able to donate more than one proton per acid molecule, in contrast to monoprotic acids that only donate o n A monoprotic acid can undergo one dissociation (chemistry)dissociation (sometimes called ionization) as follows and simply h a :::::H&lt
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 155

Acid - pp-semi-vandalismsmall=yes otheruses otheruses4acids...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online