1. Urban planners are responsible for identifying a community’s goals, and then working with
public officials, civic leaders, and developers to achieve them.
Their role in the community is a
complex one, involving architecture, design, cartography, economic development, real estate,
land use, housing, transportation planning, and the environment.
As the percentage of the
world’s population living in cities increases, this role will become even more important, as
planners will face the task of accommodating this growth in a way that is economically sound,
socially just, and sustainable.
“Planning is a process of preparing in advance, and in a reasonable systematic fashion,
recommendations for programs and courses of action to attain the common objectives of the
“By planning, I mean a method and process of decision making which includes the proper
formulation of the problems which a city needs to solve (or of the goal it wishes to achieve);
the determination of the causes of those problems; and the formulation of those policies,
action programs, and decisions which will deal with the causes to solve the problem, and will
do so democratically…”
“Planners typically ask three questions: What is likely to happen without specific intervention?
What should happen?
And how can the desired state be brought about?”
Urban planning is important/useful because of the need of a livable/workable environment.
community needs to be planed so that future problems such as growth are thought of and
Problems such as overcrowding or traffic can evolve from lack of planning.
The need for planning…consider a few acres of land…the amount of character and
development on that land will determine the amount of traffic it generates.
Developing it with
single family houses will produce a different flow of traffic than developing it with apartments,
which generate a different traffic flow than developing it with a neighborhoods shopping
Thus a land development decision is a traffic decision as well that will potentially affect
everyone in that area.
Decisions determine price, rent, vacancies, in short who can live in the
Thos decisions will have effects on the economy of the community and the
demands that are places on the community for education, social, and other services.
use decisions shape the character…whats it like to drive thru or walk thru…what kinds of jobs
and business exit.
2.Transformation in field of planning since 1960s
concern with the environment
passage of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), which created
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
required the filing of an environmental impact report (EIR) for a project
involving federal funding
many states passed laws analogous to NEPA: "little NEPA" acts
other pieces of environmental legislation—the Clean Air Act, etc.