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Test #3 Notes - Test #3 Chapters 9-11 Chapter 9.1...

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Test #3 – Chapters 9-11Chapter 9.1 – Classification of JointsJoints connect articulating bones, hyoid bone has no articulation2 ways to classify joints – structurally and functionallyChapter 9.1 – Structural ClassificationFibrous – bones are joined by fibrous connective tissueCartilaginous – bones are joined by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilageSynovial – bones are not directly connected, articulate in a fluid filled jointChapter 9.1 – Functional ClassificationSynarthrosis – immobile, good for protecting organs, very stableAmphiarthrosis – slightly moveable, vertebra and pubic symphysisDiarthrosis – feely movable, all synovial joints, broken down further into 3 categoriesoUniaxial – moves alone 1 plane (elbow)oBiaxial – moves in 2 planes (metacarpophalangeal joint – knuckle)oMultiaxial – moves in all planes (shoulder and hip)Chapter 9.2 – Fibrous JointsNo joint cavity between bones, joint may be narrow or wide – 3 typesoSuture – narrow fibrous joint (skull)oSyndesmosis – bones are widely spread and held together by fibrous tissue(high ankle sprain)oGomphosis – between the root of the tooth and the bony socketChapter 9.2 – SutureAlmost all bones of the skull articulate at a sutureThey are much wider in a fetus or babySynostosis – sutures eventually ossify and become closed by boneChapter 9.2 – Syndesmosis2 parallel bones connected by fibrous tissueoLigament or interosseous membraneoClassified as an amphiarthrosisChapter 9.2 – GomphosisAnchors the root of the tooth into the bony socketKnown as a peg and socket jointClassified as a synarthrosis
Chapter 9.3 – Cartilaginous JointsTough but flexible connective tissue, no joint cavity – 2 typesoSynchondrosis – bones joined by hyaline cartilage like the epiphyseal plate (temporary) or connected to cartilage like in the ribs (permanent)oSymphysis – bones are joined by fibrocartilage (amphiarthrosis – spinal column)Chapter 9.4 – Synovial JointsFluid filled joint cavity to allow greater mobility and movementMust have an articular capsule to hold fluidHyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of each boneSynovial membrane lines the capsule and secrete synovial fluid (lubrication and nourishment)Ligaments (fibrous connective tissue) holds bones together outside of the articulating surfaceExtrinsic ligament – outside joint capsuleIntrinsic ligament – inside joint capsuleIntracapsular ligament – inside the articular capsuleMuscles provide support as their tendons cross the jointChapter 9.4 – Additional Structure of Synovial JointsMeniscus (articular disc) – strength, shock absorption, cushioning, and smooth movementBursa – thin connective tissue sac filled with lubricating fluid, they reduce frictionTendon sheath – similar to a bursa, but smaller and around a tendonChapter 9.4 – Types of Synovial Joints

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Term
Spring
Professor
Sturges
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