Herritage2 - Thomas Aquinas-Born in a wealthy Italian...

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Thomas Aquinas -Born in a wealthy Italian family and sent to a school at a Benedictine monastery -Thomas attracted to Dominican order—scholarly order that required poverty -Brothers kidnapped Thomas and imprisoned him in the tower of the family’s castle and tried to change his mind -His family finally relented. Thomas became a Dominican monk and a university scholar -Voluminous writer. Summa Theologiae -As a student, he was known as the “bumb [silent] ox” -Challenge of the times : how to integrate knowledge from classical and Muslim sources with Christian theology. -Thomas attempted such an integration… ·Two orders : natural and supernatural ·Natural order is known to reason…supernatural order is known through revelation ·Key concept: Natural and supernatural truth harmonize -“Five Ways” to prove the existence of God ·All “proofs” depend on assumptions that cannot themselves be proven ·None of the arguments establish the existence of the biblical God ·Perhaps these arguments make Christian claims more plausible An Atemporal Cosmological Argument -Law of Sufficient Explanation – there has to be some reason/purpose -Two kinds of “being” ·Contingent – everything we see – things that depend on other things for existence ·Necessary – does not depend on something else for existence Contingent is explained by the Necessary, Necessary is explained by itself. Implying the existence of a god. A Temporal Cosmological Argument A series of dilemmas… Universe: 1) Beginning 2) No beginning a)caused b)uncaused i)personal ii)not personal Is an “actual infinite” of finite causes possible A Teleological Argument (not discussed) Bernard of Clairvaux -Abbot of a Cistercian monastery he established (in Clairvaux) -Powerful preacher and church leader best known for his teachings on love ·True knowledge of God is love of God, for God is love ·Love of God can only be known by experience ·Once the love of God is experienced, all other loves are thrown into its shadow.
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4 Degrees of Love 1. Love of self for the self’s sake. 2. Love of God for the self’s sake. 3. Love of God for God’s sake. 4. Love of self for God’s sake. Transformation and Renaissance The Black Death: The Problem of Pain and Suffering - Ships returning from Middle East brought bubonic plague. · within 3 years, 1/3 Europe’s population died · - Deeply Affected the European Psych The suffering left its mark on the Religious Imagination -Emergence of the pieta -Frequent portrayals of the suffering, Crucified Christ -Death depicted by skeleton wielding a scythe Flagellants: Appeasing an Angry God -traveling flagellants sought to do penance for the sins of the people and remind God that Christ suffered for all.
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