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BIOL3455Anatomy & Physiology IPage1of11ARTICULATIONS&BODYMOVEMENTSJoints can be classified structurally or functionally:1.Joints based onstructural classificationIt is based on the presence of connective tissue fiber, cartilage, ora joint cavity between the articulating bones:a.Fibrous jointsb.Cartilaginous jointsc.Synovial joints2.Joints based onfunctional classificationIt is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint:a.Synarthroses, or immovable jointsi.These are largely restricted to the axial skeleton,where firm bony attachments and protection ofenclosed organs are priorities. Adjective: synarthroticor synarthrodial.Singular: synarthrosisb.Amphiarthroses, or slightly movable jointsi.These are largely restricted to the axial skeleton,where firm bony attachments and protection ofenclosed organs are priorities.Adjective:amphiarthrotic or amphiarthrodial.Singular:amphiarthrosisc.Diarthroses, or feely movable jointsi.These predominate in the limbs.Adjective: diarthroticor diarthrodial.Singular: diarthrosisAs a general rule, fibrous joints are immovable (synarthrotic joints), andsynovial joints are feely movable (diarthrotic joints).
BIOL3455Anatomy & Physiology IPage2of11FIBROUSJOINTSBones are joined by fibrous tissueThere is no joint cavity presentAmount of movement allowed depends on the length of the fibersuniting the bonesoThus, some are amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) joints, butmost are synarthrotic (immovable) jointsMajor types of fibrous joints:oSuturesBones interlockBones are united by very short connective tissue fibersExample: Most joints of the skulloSyndesmosesBones do not interlockBones are united by short ligaments of dense fibroustissueExample: Distal (inferior) tibiofibular jointoGomphosisExample: Teeth are secured in a bony socket by theperiodontal ligament
BIOL3455Anatomy & Physiology IPage3of11CARTILAGINOUSJOINTSBones are connected by a plate or pad of cartilageThere is no joint cavity is present