Class Notes - Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals...

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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals Darlene Jones, DVM 09/06/07 Chapter 1 Anatomy “ana” – apart “tomy” – to cut • Branch of biology • Study of the structure of body parts Physiology • The study of the function of body parts • Closely connected to anatomy What is Life? “the aggregate of vital phenomena; a certain peculiar stimulated condition of organized matter” Characteristics of Living Things • complex organized structure • acquire and use materials and energy • maintain homeostasis o “homeo” – same o “stasis” - maintain • grow • respond to stimuli • reproduce • evolve Levels of organization (increasingly complex) • chemical/molecular level • cellular level • tissue level • organ level • body system level • organism level The Cell is the basic unit of life. • Basic cell functions are: o Obtain food and oxygen o Perform chemical reactions o Eliminate carbon dioxide and wastes o Synthesize proteins and cell components o Sensitive, responsive to environmental changes o Control exchange of materials o Moving materials o Reproduction Not every cell in body is replaceable: • Mature cardiac muscle • Skeletal muscle Tissues are groups of cells of similar specializations. There are four primary tissue types. • Muscle • Nervous • Connective • Epithelial An organ is made up of several tissue types. The stomach is one example of an organ. • The inside surface of the stomach is lined with epithelial tissue. • The wall of the stomach contains smooth muscle. • Nerve tissue in the stomach controls muscle contraction. • These tissues are bound together by connective tissue. A body system is a group of related organs. • The mouth, stomach, and small intestine are some of the organs of the digestive system. • The body systems are:- Circulatory - Digestive- Respiratory- Urinary- Skeletal- Muscular- Integumentary- Immune- Nervous- Endocrine- Reproductive Body systems maintain homeostasis. They maintain a dynamic steady state in the internal environment. • The Extracellular Fluid (ECF) is the internal environment. Examples: • Plasma – fluid in the blood • Transcellular fluid – found in body cavities Homeostasis is essential for cell survival Body systems maintain homeostasis. Cells make up body systems. Many factors of the internal environment are homeostatically regulated. These factors include: • Concentration of: o Nutrient molecules o Oxygen o Carbon dioxide o Waste products o Water o Salts o Other electrolytes • pH o normal pH for animal blood: 7.4 • temperature o Normal temp: 101 – 101.5 • volume o if animal is hemorrhaging (bleeding), can’t get enough oxygen to the body,...
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Class Notes - Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals...

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