Genetic Disorders - What causes Mutations Mutations can be...

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What causes Mutations? Mutations can be: o Spontaneous : occur because of instabilities in DNA or chromosomes o Induced : occur when an outside agent damages DNA Mutations: Effects on Individuals and Populations Most mutations are harmful – fatal or decrease survival Some mutations produce individuals  better  suited to an environment More  of those individuals survive & reproduce Genes of those individuals passed on to offspring Genes resulting from  mutation  passed on too Genes resulting from mutation  gradually become more common in population Composition of genes in population is altered over time Evolution  = change in genetic makeup of population over time We will revisit mutations when examining genetic disorders Control of Gene Expression – Chapter 13 What is gene regulation? What mechanisms are involved in controlling expression of genes? How does gene regulation in prokaryotic cells compare to regulation in eukaryotic  cells? Operons of bacteria Gene Regulation – Chapter 13 Each cell in an organism contains the same DNA Thousands of genes are present on DNA in chromosomes Each type of cell has distinct shape, structure, function Each type of cell makes a distinct set of proteins Each gene is expressed differently o Some expressed constantly – protein manufactured continuously o
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