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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Describe the properties of carbon that make it the central component of organic compounds: Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with up to four other atoms: these bonds are single, double, or triple bonds. Carbon atoms form strait or branched chains or join into rings Carbon forms covalent bonds with a greater number of different elements than does any other type of atom. Define the term, isomer, and distinguish among the three principal isomer types: Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures. Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. Geometric isomers , or cis-trans isomers, differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other. Cells can distinguish between these configurations. Identify the major functional groups present in organic compounds, and describe their properties: Hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen, are nonpolar and hydrophobic. The methyl group is a hydrocarbon group. Polar and ionic functional groups interact with each other and are hydrophilic. Partial charges on atoms at opposite ends of a bond are responsible for the polar property of a functional group. Hydroxyl and carbonyl groups are polar....
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Wetherbee during the Fall '08 term at Rhode Island.
- Fall '08