Ch. 4 Summary

Ch 4 Summary - Chapter 4 Organization of the Cell Summarize the relationship between cell organization and homeostasis The cell must maintain

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Chapter 4: Organization of the Cell Summarize the relationship between cell organization and homeostasis: The  cell  must maintain  homeostasis , an appropriate internal environment. Every cell is surrounded by a  plasma membrane  that forms a cytoplasmic compartment. The  plasma membrane helps maintain homeostasis by allowing the cell to exchange materials with its  external environment and to maintain internal conditions that may be very different from those of  the outer environment.  Cells have  organelles , internal structures that carry out specific functions that help maintain  homeostasis. Explain the relationship between cell size and maintaining homeostasis: Most cells are microscopic. Most prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells. A critical factor in determining cell size is the ratio of the plasma membrane (surface area) to the  cell’s volume; the plasma membrane must be large enough to regulate the passage of materials  into and out of the cell. Cell size and shape are related to function and are limited by the need to maintain homeostasis. Describe methods that biologists use to study cells, including microscopy and cell  fractionation: Biologists have learned about cell structure by studying cells with  light  and  electron  microscopes  and by using a variety of chemical methods. The electron microscope has superior  resolving power , enabling investigators to see details of  cell structures not observable with conventional microscopes. Cell biologists use  cell fractionation  methods for purifying organelles, to gain information about  the function of cell structures. Compare and contrast the general characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,  and contrast plant and animal cells: Prokaryotic cells  are bounded by a plasma membrane but have little or no internal membrane  organization. They have a  nuclear area  rather than a membrane-enclosed nucleus. Prokaryotes  typically have a  cell wall  and  ribosomes  and may have propeller-like  flagella .
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Eukaryotic cells  have a membrane-enclosed 
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Wetherbee during the Fall '08 term at Rhode Island.

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Ch 4 Summary - Chapter 4 Organization of the Cell Summarize the relationship between cell organization and homeostasis The cell must maintain

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