Revies - Unit Introduction Psychology The scientific study...

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Unit: Introduction Psychology : The scientific study of mind (contents of subjective experience) and behavior (actions and expressions of thoughts and feelings) Names in Psychology (in rough chronological order): Wilhelm Wundt : Founded Structuralism in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany G . Stanley Hall: Brought Psychology to US; opened research lab and helped found APA Edward Titchener : Believed to understand consciousness needed to examine the key elements of sensations, feelings, and images. Promoted the method of introspection as a way to study subjects. A structuralist. William James : Said that the focus of structuralism was too narrow; promoted Functionalism John B Watson : Thought psychology should be considered an objective, experimental science. Said psychology needed to be a measurable science known as the science of behavior – first behavorialist Max Werthimer : In order to obtain an understanding of experiences, one must analyze the whole pattern (i.e., Gestalt psychology) Sigmund Freud : Some behaviors cannot be explained through direct observation or by asking people to self-analyze. This is a result of thoughts/desires that are manifested below one’s conscious awareness. Used psychoanalysis (talking about dreams and childhood to analyze current situation) BF Skinner : Did not deny existence of internal events, but didn’t believe that they could be scientifically studied. Said principle of behavior was simply that organisms tend to repeat responses that led to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. Carol Rogers/ Abraham Maslow : Human behavior is primarily governed by one’s sense of self. Promoted humanistic theory that people are in control of themselves. Schools of Psychology: Structuralism : The first school of psychology, founded 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt. Structuralism focused on the individual components that make up a behavior (Ex. How long does it take to make a decision? Complex reaction time minus Simple reaction time Equals the time it takes to make a decision). Functionalism : Need to investigate the function/purpose of conscious Empiricism: Human knowledge and thought derive ultimately from sensory experience. Law of Association by Contiguity: If a person experiences two environmental factors (stimuli) at the same time or right after another (contiguously) then these thoughts will become associated in the person’s mind so that the thought of one event will elicit the thought of the other Nativism: Response to Empiricism. Holds the view that some knowledge and rules of operation are native to the human mind and do not have to be acquired through 1
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experience Behavorialism – Developed from functionalist/Structuralist. Basic approach – look at the physiological level and the neurons Humanism: Acknowledgement that people ARE masters of their own destinies Behavioral psychologist: Only interested in behavior, not the reason why Cognitive psychologist : Concerned about the reasons and thoughts behind the behavior.
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