final exam review - answers

final exam review - answers - Hierarchy of biological...

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  Hierarchy of biological organization Chemical/molecular level Cellular level Tissue level Organ level Body system level Organism level   Extracellular fluid Outside of cell body Regulated by the kidneys Internal environment   Endocrine vs. Exocrine glands Endocrine = those that secrete within  the body Exocrine = those that have secretions to outside  of the body   Body systems: which two control all others? Definition = a group of related organs Maintain homeostasis Nervous System + Endocrine System – control bodily functions   Organelles – which ones are located in animal cells? where in the cell?   functions? Nucleus     o directs metabolic functions o facilitates cell division Endoplasmic Reticulum     o Network of tube-like structures in the cytoplasm that interconnect with each other
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o 2 types: Rough and Smooth Golgi complex     o Synthesis of carbohydrates o Packages of secretions for export from the cell Lysosomes o Formed by the Golgi complex o Contain digestive enzymes Peroxisomes o Like lysosomes, but contain oxidative enzymes o Degrade harmful substances like alcohol Mitochondria o “powerhouse” of the cell – principle sites for energy production o Where cellular respiration occurs Centrioles o involved with cell division   Visceral vs. Parietal pleura Pleura = serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity Visceral pleura = envelopes the right and left lung Parietal pleura = lines the walls of the thorax   Visceral vs. Parietal peritoneum Peritoneum = lines the abdominal cavity and extends into the pelvic cavity Serous membrane similar to that surrounding the heart and lungs   Types of Endocytosis Phagocytosis = “cell-eating”
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Pinocytosis = “cell-drinking” Receptor-mediated endocytosis Things going INTO the cell   What is the universal energy currency in the cell?  ATP   Anatomical terms in relation to the body (also know directional planes) Cranial      – direction toward the head Caudal      – direction toward the tail Rostral and Caudal      - terms for direction within the head to mean toward the nose (rostral) or  toward the tail (caudal) Median plane      – divides the body into equal right and left halves Transverse plane      – divides the body into cranial and caudal parts Frontal plane      – divides the body into dorsal (upper) and ventral (lower) segments Dorsal      – pertains to the back or upper surface of an animal Ventral      – pertains to the undersurface of an animal
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course AVS 331 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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final exam review - answers - Hierarchy of biological...

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