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Unformatted text preview: HEALTH EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 4: Violence and Abuse: Creating Healthy Environments VIOLENCE – a set of behaviors that produces injuries, as well as the outcomes of these behaviors (the injuries themselves) – regardless of whether they are intentional injuries of unintentional injuries 1985 – US Public Health Service formally identified violence as a leading public health problem Children, women, African American males, and elderly – listed as vulnerable populations at high risk Overall crime and violent crime has decreased every year since 1991, but odds of being a victim of crime in general are on the increase Societal Causes of Violence Poverty Unemployment Parental Influence – children raised in violent homes more likely to become violent Cultural Beliefs cultures that objectify women and empower men have higher rates of violence in the home The Media Discrimination/Oppression Religious Differences Breakdowns in the criminal justice system Stress Anger is a personal precipitator of violence Anger could be genetic of physiological, some people born unstable, touchy, or easily angered Family background can influence anger Largest predictor of future violence is past violence Primary Aggression – goal directed, hostile self assertion, destructive in nature Reactive Aggression – emotional reaction brought about by frustrating life experiences In 1998 10,000 hate crimes reported. 1000 of those were sex-bias crimes Hate crimes vary along 2 dimensions: 1. the way they are carried out 2. their effects on their vitims Three additional characteristics – excessively brutal, perpetrated at random on total strangers, perpetrated by multiple offenders Perpetrators motivated by thrill, defensive feelings, or mission to hate-mongering Nearly 1/3 of nations college campuses have reported incidents of hate crimes Ethnoviolence – violence directed randomly at persons affiliated with a particular group Prejudice – A set of negative attitudes and beliefs or an emotional reaction or way of thinking about a group of people Discrimination – Actions that deny equal treatment or opportunities to a group, often based on bias and prejudice Domestic Violence – The use of force to control and maintain power over another person in the home environment, including both actual harm and the threat of harm 6/10 women in US will be assaulted at some time in their lives by someone they know 2,200 women in US killed each year by partners or ex partners Most vulnerable women are African American and Hispanic 3 out of 4 women who are murdered are killed by their husbands Domestic violence is single greatest cause of injury to women (lots of other stats that might be worth knowing, pg. 84 of book) Psychologist Lenore Walker – “cycle of violence theory” – cycle has 3 phases 1. Tension building – minor battering, woman assumes guilt for doing something to...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course PE 101 taught by Professor Adame during the Fall '07 term at Emory.
- Fall '07