World History 2 - Chapters 3 and 4 I Early agricultural...

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Chapters 3 and 4 I. Early agricultural society in Africa A. Climatic change and the development of agriculture in Africa 1. Sahara region used to be grassy steppe lands with water (10,000 B.C.E.) a. Abundant hunting, fishing, wild grains b. Eastern Sudan begins to herd cattle and collect grains (9000 B.C.E.) c. Permanent settlements and the growing of sorghum and yams (7500 B.C.E.) d. Small states with semi-divine rulers (5000 B.C.E.) 2. Climate becomes hotter and drier after 5000 B.C.E. a. People are driven into river regions--Nile b. Annual flooding makes rich soil for agriculture B. Egypt and Nubia: "gifts of the Nile" 1. Egypt--lower third of Nile River; Nubia--middle third of Nile 2. After 5000 B.C.E. peoples cultivate gourds and watermelons, domesticate donkeys and cattle (from Sudan), and grow wheat and barley (from Mesopotamia) 3. Agriculture easy in Egypt (due to Nile flooding) but more work in Nubia 4. States begin to emerge by 4000 B.C.E., small kingdoms by 3300 B.C.E. C. The unification of Egypt 1. Strong Nubian realm, Ta-Seti (3400-3200 B.C.E.) 2. Egypt, large and prosperous state by 3100 B.C.E. a. Menes at Memphis unites Upper and Lower Egypt b. Pharaoh, absolute ruler and owns all land 3. Archaic Period (3100-2660 B.C.E.) and Old Kingdom (2660-2160 B.C.E.) D. Turmoil and empire 1. Period of upheaval after Old Kingdom (2160-2040
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B.C.E.) 2. Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 B.C.E.) 3. Nomadic horsemen, Hyksos, invade Egypt a. Using bronze weapons and chariots (Egypt does not have) b. Captures Memphis in 1674 B.C.E. c. Causes revolts in Upper Egypt 4. New Kingdom (1550-1070 B.C.E.) 5. Egyptians driven out of Nubia in 1100 B.C.E. a. Nubian Kingdom of Kush; capital is Napata b. King Kashta conquers Thebes (in Egypt) in 760 B.C.E. 6. Assyrians with iron weapons invade from the north 7. After sixth century B.C.E. series of foreign conquests II. The formation of complex societies and sophisticated cultural traditions A. The emergence of cities and stratified societies 1. Cities are not as prominent in Egypt as in Mesopotamia (agricultural villages) a. Memphis, head of the delta b. Thebes, administrative center of Upper Egypt c. Heliopolis, center of sun god cult d. Tanis, important sea port on Mediterranean
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