World History 3

World History 3 - Chapters 4 5 and 6 I Political...

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Chapters 4, 5, and 6 I. Political organization in early China A. Early agricultural society and the Xia dynasty 1. The Yellow River a. Water source at high plateau of Tibet b. Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow" c. "China's Sorrow"--extensive flooding d. Loess provided rich soil, soft and easy to work 2. Neolithic societies after 5000 B.C.E. a. Yangshao society, 5000-3000 B.C.E. b. Excavations at Banpo village: fine pottery, bone tools 3. The Xia dynasty B. The Shang dynasty: 1766-1122 B.C.E. 1. Arose in the southern and eastern areas of the Xia realm 2. Many written records and material remains discovered 3. Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by ruling elite 4. Horses and chariots traveled with Indo-European migrants to China 5. Agricultural surpluses supported large troops 6. A vast network of walled towns 7. The Shang capital moved six times 8. Lavish tombs of Shang kings with thousands of objects 9. Other states besides Shang, for example, Sanxingdui C. The Zhou dynasty: 1122-256 B.C.E. 1. Zhou gradually eclipsed Shang 2. Mandate of heaven, the right to rule a. The Zhou needed to justify the overthrow b. Ruler as "the son of heaven" c. Mandate of heaven only given to virtuous rulers 3. Political organization: decentralized administration a. Used princes and relatives to rule regions b. Consequence: weak central government and
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rise of regional powers 4. Iron metallurgy spread through China in first millennium B.C.E. 5. The fall of the Zhou II. Society and family in ancient China A. The social order 1. The ruling elites with their lavish consumption of bronze a. Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding b. Administrative and military offices c. Manuals of etiquette 2. Free artisans and craftsmen mostly worked for elites 3. Merchants and trade were important a. Trade networks linked China with west and south b. Oar-propelled boats traded with Korea and offshore islands 4. Peasants, the majority of population 5. Slaves, mostly war prisoners B. Family and patriarchy 1. Early dynasties ruled through family and kinship groups 2. Veneration of ancestors a. Belief in ancestors' presence and their continuing influence b. Burial of material goods with the dead c. Offering sacrifices at the graves d. Family heads presided over rites of honoring ancestors' spirits
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