A&P II Ch26-29 review

A&P II Ch26-29 review - Ch 26 Urinary System Overview...

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Ch. 26: Urinary System Overview of Urinary system : - has three major functions: o excretion: removal of organic waste products from body fluids o elimination: the discharge of waste products o homeostatic regulation of the volume and solute concentration of blood plasma - o adjusting water volume lost in urine o releasing erythropoietin and releasing renin - regulating plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, and other ions o controls quantities lost in urine o controls calcium ion levels through synthesis of calcitriol - helping to stabilize blood pH o controls the loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine - conserving valuable nutrients o prevents them from being excreted in urine; while excreting organic waste products (esp. nitrogenous wastes- i.e. urea and uric acid) - assisting the liver o detoxifies poisons o during starvation, deaminates AA so other tissues can break them down Kidneys: - perform the excretory func. of urinary sys. - located on either side of the vertebral column b/w T12 and L3 - the left kidney is slightly superior to the right - ea. kidney is topped w/ an adrenal gland - they lie b/w the muscles of the dorsal body wall and the parietal peritoneum, in a retroperitoneal position - the kidneys position is maintained by: o overlying peritoneum o contact w/ adjacent visceral organs o supportive connective tissue - if the suspensory fibers break or become detached, a slight bump or jar can displace the kidney and stress the attached vessels and ureter - this condition is called a floating kidney, it is dangerous b/c the ureters or renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during mov’t - an adult kidney is reddish-brown, about 10cm long, 5.5cm wide, and 3cm thick - ea. kidney weighs about 150g
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Urine: - produced by kidneys - fluid containing water, ions, and sm. soluble compounds Urinary tract: - the path urine takes to leave the body Ureters: - paired tubes that are part of the urinary tract - lead to urinary bladder Urinary bladder: - muscular sac the holds urine for a temporary time period Urethra: - urine passes thru urethra after leaving the bladder - leads the urine to the exterior of the body Urination/Micturition: - the bladder and the urethra are responsible for the elimination of urine - the contraction of the bladder forces the urine through the urethra and out of the body The Kidneys: Renal capsule: - layer of collagen fibers that covers the outer surface of the entire organ Adipose capsule: - a thick layer of adipose tissue that surrounds the renal capsule Renal fascia: - a dense, fibrous outer layer that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures - collagen fibers extend outward from the renal capsule through the adipose capsule to this layer - anteriorly, the renal fascia forms a thick layer that fuses with the peritoneum hilum: - prominent medial indention - point of entry for: o renal artery o renal nerves - point of exit for: o renal vein o ureter Sectional Anatomy of the Kidneys:
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A&P II Ch26-29 review - Ch 26 Urinary System Overview...

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