April2-Slides - Why Epilepsy in NB 222 The Neurobiology and...

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1 The Neurobiology and Behavior of Seizures and Epilepsy BioNB 222 April 2, 2008 Why Epilepsy in NB 222? It’s a disease of neural excitability Its effects can reach all size scales and levels of organization and complexity It is an electrical brainstorm—a breakdown due to over-excitation affecting molecular, cellular, network, and brain systems that you’ve already studied The breakdown takes over your body’s cognitive and movement systems Did you know these Historical greats had Epilepsy? Historical: Socrates, Caesar, Swift, Poe, Dante, DaVinci, Michaelangelo, Moliere, Dickens, Lewis Carroll, Doestoyevsky, Alexander the Great, Cardinal Richlieu, Napoleon, St. Paul, Kierkegaard, van Gogh, Paganini, Handel, Tschaikovsky, & probably Beethoven. Contemporary: Agatha Christie, Danny Glover, Richard Burton,Truman Capote, Elton John, Neil Young, and many others. What is a seizure and what is epilepsy? Seizure: the clinical manifestation of an abnormal and excessive excitation of a population of cortical neurons Epilepsy is a group of related disorders marked by recurrent seizures over a prolonged period of time. Epilepsy: recurrent unprovoked seizures Although seizures are a symptom of epilepsy, not all people who have seizures have epilepsy. NEUROLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN THE U.S. NEUROLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN THE U.S. Examples from 131 syndromes listed by NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH) Febrile Seizures Febrile Seizures Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Disease Epilepsy Epilepsy Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Stroke Stroke Tourette Tourette Syndrome Syndrome Duchenne Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Huntington's Disease Huntington's Disease 10,000,000 4,000,000 2,500,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 350,000 150,000 100,000 100,000 50,000 10,000 10,000 (1/25 under 5y) (1/20 over 65y) (deaths per year)
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2 Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Locus Both hemispheres affected from outset Manifestations (the most severe of epilepsies) Duration: ~2 minutes Muscles rigid (tonic) – person falls down, rhythmic muscle contractions (clonic), shallow breathing, incontinence, postictal drowsiness Usually no aura or warning Consciousness – Patient loses consciousness Adapted from International League Against Epilepsy.
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