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Lecture36 - Ronald Booker BioNB 222 Spring 2008 Lecture 36...

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Neural Development Our goals: Develop a cellular and molecular description of neural development Unfortunately we can only cover a limited number of topics 1. Initial formation of neural tissue 2. Regional specification of neural tissue 3. Neuronal migration and Process outgrowth 4. Cell death and trophic factors Our goal for Today: Define key terms 1. Neural Induction 2. The Neural default model 3. The role of BMPs in neural induction 4. The role of BMP antagonist Differentiation The development of specialized cell types, including the cells of the nervous system from a single fertilized egg Egg Neurons Glia Muscle Osteoblast Epidermis Neuronal Ectoderm Mesoderm Ronald Booker, BioNB 222 Spring 2008 Lecture 36
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Defining Development • Differentiation: development of specialized cell types – Diversity in terms of: • Shape Neurotransmitter content • Receptors Ion channels Pattern of connectivity These features are acquired as the cell differentiates Determination The processes by which a developing cell becomes committed/restricted to a particular developmental pathway Neuronal Glia Muscle Osteoblast Egg Neurons Epidermis Ectoderm Mesoderm Ronald Booker, BioNB 222 Spring 2008 Lecture 36
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A Molecular Definition of Differentiation: The activation of genes in a cell specific pattern results in overt changes in cell morphology, biochemistry and function Cortical Pyramidal Cell Cerebellar Purkinje Cell DNA = Neural Specific gene = Pyramidal Cell Specific = Purkinje Cell Specific = Muscle Cell Specific = Purkinje Cell Specific = Muscle Cell Specific 3 6 10 7 11 2 4 8 2 4 8 1 5 9 1 5 9 3 6 10 7 11 Nature versus Nurture Cues that influence development a) Intrinsic cues (Nature) a) Genes b) Other inherited factors b) Extrinsic cues (Nurture) a) Cell lineage b) Cell-cell interaction c) Trophic factors d) Hormones e) Pattern of neural activity To identify a potential cue you must do an experiment Neuronal Glia Muscle Osteoblast Egg Neurons Epidermis Ectoderm Mesoderm Ronald Booker, BioNB 222 Spring 2008 Lecture 36
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