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Lecture18 - BioNB222 Cornell University Spring 2008 Andrew...

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BioNB222 Spring 2008 Cornell University Andrew H. Bass Lecture 18. Neural Systems for Sensory Maps Reading Assignment: Purves, Chapter 9 Lecture Outline GOAL: To understand how maps of our sensory world are formed in the cerebral cortex. A. Cerebral Hemispheres 1. The cerebral hemispheres are divided into 4 lobes (P - Fig. A3, p. 818) . The cortex is folded into ridges called gyri (gyrus is singular) and grooves called sulci (sulcus is singular). 2. The cerebral cortex is the “roof” of the cerebral hemisphere ( P – Fig. 18.1 ). 3. The “floor” of your hemispheres has many divisions, including the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen & globus pallidus) that are discussed in the next lecture ( P – Fig. 18.1 ). 4. Each hemisphere has a lateral ventricle ( P- Fig. 18.1, A12 - p.830 ). The lateral ventricles are part of an elaborate system of ventricular spaces that are continuous throughout your entire brain and with the central canal of your spinal cord ( P- Fig. A20, A21 - pp.840-841 ). The ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). B. The cerebral cortex, like nerves, can be functionally divided ( P – Fig. 26.1 ): 1. Sensory cortex : A region of cortex dominated by information processing for one sensory system, e.g. vision, olfaction, hearing, somatosensation. Primary sensory cortices (plural for cortex) analyze the characteristics of sensory input, for example the color, shape and movement of visual images. Secondary sensory cortices combine these attributes into patterns (e.g., faces). 2. Motor cortex : forms direct connections between your cortex and nuclei found at other brain levels (midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord) that are dedicated to the relaying of information that eventually excites motor neurons and leads to body movements (discussed in next lecture).
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