4-9-08-Slides - The Origins of Speech Bio 222 April 9, 2008...

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1 The Origins of Speech Bio 222 April 9, 2008 Ron Hoy Reading Assignment • Purves, textbook • Page 688-689, Box 27A, “Speech” How does it Happen so Fast? Yawning See yawn Do yawn Oral behavior as the precursors of speech • Pre-human primate origins of speech in monkey oral behaviors. • Motor acts like lip-smacking, sucking, chewing became communication signals. • In humans these oral acts became associated with sounds (“mama” hypothesis), • The click languages of southern Africa are considered to be the most primitive of human languages (by some). They provide a theoretical transition from clicks to modern language.
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2 Where did speech come from? • Learning how to speak is like learning how to walk. • Speaking is movement made audible. • Hands First—Motor Theory of Speech. – Hand and face gestures convey social information in animals and people. The motor areas of the brain are the “seed bed” for speech. Hand gestures are “primal.” • Mirror Neurons—Imitation as communication. – In monkeys, neurons near Broca s & Wernicke s area mouth movements (feeding). Provides a match between observation and execution—just like speech development does (learning by imitation). MIRROR NEURONS : Monkey See , Monkey Do . Neurons “see,” Neurons “Do” Neurons “hear,” Neurons “Do” Definition : A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when performing an action and when observing the same action performed by another creature. Trial 1
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course BIO 2220 taught by Professor Hopkins,c.d. during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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4-9-08-Slides - The Origins of Speech Bio 222 April 9, 2008...

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