100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.
The preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.
Unit 3, 4 Outline1. Laws of Nature(A) Regularity Theories(i)Hume’s original-It’s a law that all A’s are B’s -EX: If an A then B is always true(ii)Hume’s with first existential modification-All A’s are B’s is always true and there is an A(ii)Hume’s with counterfactual modification-If A then B is always true and if something were an A, then it would be a B(B)Problems(i)Vacuous “Laws”-need to add initial claim that there is an A. -objection to simple regulatory theory (if A then always B), says that true with out A…mermaids are always blue…but there are no mermaids…need to add initial idea that there are mermaid.(ii)Non-instantial Laws-there are no such particles-all particles with no force remain at rest or acting in a straight line...there aren’t any particles because there is always a force like gravity.(iii)Probabilistic Laws-Not in the form of all As are Bs-EX: half life is 1620 years, so it will prob. Decay in 1620 is 1/2(iv)Accidental Generalizations-Moral: laws must tell us what would happen if things were different- not only what actually happens.-All dogs born at sear are not cockerspanials…Generalizations don’t have to support conterfuctuals about how things could have been but laws must.(v)Circularity Worry-Gold sphere and oranion sphere. It is metaphysically possible that both are a mile in diameter, but it is physically impossible that the uranium is. What does it mean to be physically possible? To appeal to a law of nature. But we need to know the possibilities of physical form to know a natural law…Circular!-These arguments are circular because we need a physically possible object.
-Generalizations about actual things cant happen. Laws tell us what would happen if things were different.(vi)Order of Explanation Worry-Can’t work because it gets the order backwards because we cant appeal to counterfactuals to explain laws.(C)Know which of Hume’s views (modified or not) each problem is a problem for, and exactly why.-Which connect with which.