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Unformatted text preview: The News Media
It speaks for itself. QUIZ 1. What was the earliest form of media? (a). Newspaper (b). Newsletter (c). TV (d). Pamphlet (e). Radio 2. The newspapers declared war on this country, two days before the U.S. Congress: (a). GB (b). France (c). Mexico (d). Spain (e). Venezuela QUIZ 3. Who was famous for his "fireside chats"? (a). Teddy Roosevelt (b). FDR (c). Truman (d). Eisenhower (e). Kennedy 4. Which federal arm of the executive branch sets rules and regulations for broadcasting? (a). FCC (b). FDA (c). CIA (d). FBI (e). FEMA QUIZ 5. Who is our Press Secretary? (a). Ari Fleischer (b). Tony Snow (c). Ron Nessen (d). Mike McCurry (e). Joe Lockhart 6. Although he has not yet made a formal announcement, this Presidential hopeful announced he'd be running on Letterman: (a). Barack Obama (b). Rudy Giuliani (c). Newt Gingrich (d). John McCain (e). Christopher Dodd QUIZ 7. Arthur Schlesinger, who died last night at the age of 89, worked for which U.S. President? (a). Kennedy (b). Johnson (c). Nixon (d). Ford (e). Reagan Constitution First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." What does this mean? Early Media Pamphlet... remember Thomas Paine? Newspapers...
With the development of parties came the method of dissemination of that message Advocated party platforms, promoted candidates, and attacked the opposition. Is this the free press the Constitution had in mind? Early Media Penny Press: New York Sun New York Herald Yellow Journalism: screaming headlines and sensational stories. Growth of newspaper circulation: from 1870-1900, from 2.5M to 15M. Early Media Newspapers declared war on Spain two days before Congress declared war... Do you think the newspapers influenced the decision of Congress? OR Were the newspapers simply reflecting public (and therefore, Congress') opinion? Modern Media Radio
1920: first commercial radio broadcast 1930: 40% of all households owned a radio Remember Roosevelt's "Fireside Chats"? Conservative talk shows have taken advantage of radio: 40,000 broadcast hours per week, compared to 3,000 for liberal talk shows Modern Media TV 1950-1960: audience increased from 6M to 60M viewers, more than 88% of U.S. households, even outnumbering those with indoor plumbing!! A Measure of Media Bias: Is there bias in the media? How do you measure this? Regulation The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets rules and regulations for broadcasting in radio and TV. Rules:
Fairness Doctrine: implemented by FCC, required radio and TV stations to provide a reasonable percentage of time for programs dealing with issues of public interest. (no longer used) Equal Time Rule: equal blocks of time must be made available to all political candidates. Regulation Public law limits a company's ownership to no more than 39% of the national TV audience. Law disallows cross-ownership of newspapers and local TV stations. Is this a constitutional ideal? More Media Cable Satellite Internet BUT!!!!!... The availability of virtually unlimited news programming has not yielded a better-informed citizenry... WHY NOT???!!! More Media Facts Carrying Capacity: amount of information a particular communication technology can economically provide its audience. TV news editors select and present stories that are targeted to the tastes and sophistication of the "median viewer"... Does the Constitution guarantee a free and unregulated media? More Interesting Facts... Better-educated respondents are more likely to rely on newspapers as their primary source of information. Why do we think crime is on the rise when it is actually decreasing? The Government's Message Dissemination Executive Press Secretary Congress Public hearings, C-SPAN, floor debate, Congressional Record... Trial Balloon Politician floats a policy w/ a reporter anonymously to test public opinion Leak: re. "Deep Throat" (Mark Felt, second in command at FBI) War and the Media Does the media have the right (or privilege) to report war details? Does the Pentagon promote transparency? Is it the media's job to make sure our tax dollars are being spent in a particular manner? ...
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- Spring '08