2. Islamic Civilization and the Legend of Political FailureMarshall Hodgson compares the cultural high-points of Islam to the Renaissance. He claimed that the Ottoman, Safavids and Moghuls brought a high degree of prosperity and to their territories. However, the modern values of science and politics are derived from the changes in European thinking that came during the Reformation and the Renaissance so perhaps it's a bit much to call the Islamic successes equal. Assabid rulers failed even to protect their borders; they were always being overrun. Although the Ottoman, Safavid and Moghul Empires did defend their empires at first, they couldn't sustain it. In the 17thcentury they all lost control. Europeans penetrated far into Arabia. Most scholars depict the M.E as producing no successful political system but if so, how did the area maintain a political identity and why do people still want Islamic governments?The widespread conquest of the Arabs “reinforced an archaic mentality mentally unfavorable for political regimes.” Rapid acquisition of land forced caliphs to borrow practices from older cultures
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