Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Final Study Guide COMM 1600 10:05:00 PM...

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Final Study Guide- COMM 1600 14/12/2006 00:05:00 Conjunctive- easier to complete and a better outcome when all members participate Disjunctive- better outcome when a person completes it on his or her own The assembly effect and group polarization: What are they, and why do they occur? Assembly effect (nonsummativity)- o Group produces a decision better (or worse) than what the individuals could have done o Important factor: Type of task (conjunctive and disjunctive) The whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts. Only when group members whose members work INTERDEPENDENTLY on the task is the synergy possible; groups whose members work INDEPENDENTLY do not achieve this result. If group members complete individual assignments on their own and then later compile their individual products to the final group product without discussing each members’ individual work AS A GROUP, then that group will probably NOT achieve the assembly effect It is the communication among members that allows synergy to occur Members can compensate for each others’ weakenesses with each member’s information complementing the others. By sharing what they know, members give the group a larger pool of information and ideas to draw from. Group members can spot each other’s errors, recognize truth and process more information than individuals can Group Polarization “risky/cautions shift” o Group decisions are more extreme than what individuals thought they wanted before discussion o Two explanations have been proposed for this Social Comparison Theory (SCT) focuses on psychological factors; it suggests that as members get to know each other’s values, they want to appear “correct” and may exaggerate opinions in the direction that they believe the group values positively
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Persuasive Arguments Theory (PAT) says that the number, salience and novelty of arguments ina particular direction persuade members to move in that direction. Thus, if a member favor risk (or caution), there will be more stronger arguments presented in favor risk (or caution); the persuasive power of these arguments shifts that group in that direction. Be able to recognize definitions and example of the fallacies discussed Fallacy: a reasoning error- asked in scenario o Overgeneralizing: assuming that because something is true about one or a few items, it is true of all or most items of the same type EX: When a person concludes that because SOME college students have defaulted on their government-guaranteed loans, MOST or ALL college students are irresponsible o Ad Hominem Attacks: An attack on a person rather than his or her argument. The attack diverts the group’s attention so that members debate the merits of the person rather than his or her position on the issue. Attacks condemn individuals on the basis of characteristics irrelevant to the validity of opinions or accuracy or information they provide. EX: “You can’t trust a woman or minorities to evaluate
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Final Study Guide - Final Study Guide COMM 1600 10:05:00 PM...

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