ATOC1060 Exam 2

ATOC1060 Exam 2 - ATOC 1060: Review guideline for exam 2 1....

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ATOC 1060: Review guideline for exam 2 1. Concepts Geostrophic balance : the exact balance between the Coriolis Force and the pressure gradient force Geostrophic wind : The geostrophic wind is the theoretical wind that would result from an exact balance between the Coriolis foce and the pressure gradient force. The geostrophic wind due to other forces such as friction from the ground or the centrifugal force from curved fluid flow. Thus, the actual wind would equal the geostrophic wind only if there were no friction and the isobars were perfectly straight. Despite this, much of the atmosphere outside the tropics is close to geostrophic flow much of the time and it is a valuable first approximation. Geostrophic currents : a current that flows around ocean gyres; produced where the Coriolis effect that deflects the flow into the center of the gyre is balanced by the downslope flow from the higher sea- surface elevations in the gyre center. The resulting flow is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (counterclockwise in the southern) approximately parallel to the ocean slop and in the same direction as the wind driven flow Gleostropic flow : Balance between PGF and Coriolis force, parallel to pressure lines, low pressure to left (right) of flow in NH (SH), not very accurate approximate near surface (friction). Very good in upper atmosphere, the stronger the PGF (tighter the isobars), the stronger the Vg. Heat Capacity : It s the measure of the heat energy requires to
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increase the temperature of an object by a certain temperature interval. Heat capacity is an extensive property because its value is proportional to the amount of material in the object. For example. A bathtub of water has a greater heat capacity than a cup of water Latent heat of vaporization : The energy required to effect a change of phase between a liquid and a gas. Converting liquid into a gas requires an additional energy; converting has to liquid release energy to the environment (the energy needed to convert 1kilogram (kg) liquid water to water vapor: 2260kJ/kg at 100C) Latent heat of fusion : The energy required to effect a change of phase between a solid and a liquid. Converting a solid to a liquid requires additional energy; converting a solid to a liquid releases energy into the environment (the energy needed to convert 1kg ice to liquid water: 335kJ/kg at 0C) Evaporation : the process by which a liquid is converted to a gas Condensation : the process by which a gas becomes a liquid Saturation Vapor Pressure: Relative humidity : The amount of water vapor contained by unit volume of air divided by the amount of water vapor that volume would contain if the air were saturated. Ration of action vapor pressure to the saturation pressure at the same temperature (percentage: 100%, saturated) Super saturation : have greater than 100% relative humidity Ocean Ekaman spiral : The deeper below the surface, the farther each
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course ATOC 1060 taught by Professor Keen,richa during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.

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ATOC1060 Exam 2 - ATOC 1060: Review guideline for exam 2 1....

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