ATOC1060 Exam 1
24/02/2008 15:14:00
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ATOC 1060: Review guide for exam 1
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Section 002
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NOTE: Two copies of the textbook are available as reserve material in the Math-
Physics Library (in Duane, one floor up from the classroom)
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Exam 1 will cover lectures 1-12, HW1 and HW2,
and the corresponding
chapters of the textbook that are covered by the lectures. We will not test the content of
Lecture 11, which is the guest lecture. For lecture 12, exam 1 will cover the “Coriolis
effect”, but will NOT include the concepts of “geostrophy” and “geostrophic wind”. The
exam questions are multiple choices.
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1. Concepts and laws
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Understand the concepts and laws. You are not required to memorize the exact
words and numerical values of the concepts we have covered, but you are required to
fully understand them.
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For example: Greenhouse effect, global warming, glacial and interglacial periods,
buoyancy, positive buoyancy, neutral buoyancy, negative buoyancy, ITCZ, Hadley cell,
the Wien’s law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, etc.
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Buoyancy is the tendency of an object to float in a fluid. Buoyancy is
controlled by the differences in density between the object and the fluid where
density is given by the mass of a substance within a unit volume.
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If we begin with the balloon partially inflated , it will contain a certain number
of air molecules. As these are heated, the number of molecules does not
change, but they move faster, increasing the pressure on the interior of the
balloon; this causes the balloon to expand. We
now have the same number
of air molecules as before, but they occupy a greater volume.
This means
that the density of the air must decrease. Because the air in the balloon is
less dense than the air surrounding it, the balloon becomes positively
buoyant, and it rises.
The balloon will continue to rise until the density of the
air outside the balloon matches that of the inside (neutral buoyancy).
If the air
in the balloon is more dense than the surrounding air, the balloon would have
a negative buoyancy, and it will sink.
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2. Interpretation of charts (figures)