Respiratory_system

Respiratory_system - THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONDUCTIVE...

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Unformatted text preview: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONDUCTIVE PORTION AND RESPIRATION Beneral Features and Function: l) Hollow branching tube transports air to respiratory tissue. 2; Hams and humidifies air. 3 Minor cooling system for body (prime importance in many animals). 4; Remves- particulate matter from air. 5 Transports debris out of lungs to outside or into digestive system. Parts l) Nasal cavitymd pharynx (to be seen later) 2) larynx (closes system off from digestive system) 3; Trachea 4 Primary bronchi to each lung. 5) Lobar bronchi 3 to right 2 to left 6} Segnental bronchi to segments of lung. 7 Now begins branching at very short regular intervals. first at cm length finally at no intervalsd’hese branches are to lobules of lung tissue and are now called bronchioles. ‘ 8) After 23 to 30 generations of divisions from trachea the respiratory bronchio‘ is reached (only l7 at birth) STRUCTURE OF TRACHEA l. Hall made up of about 20 c-shaped rings of lyaline cartilage. 2. Posterior wall which faces ' esophagus is bridged with a she: of smooth muscle. 3. Gap between rings is filled by dense fibro-elastic connective tissue continuous with perichon- druim. 4.‘ Thin connective tissue adventiti on outside. 5. Inner surface lined by a mucous membrane. a) pseudostratified columnar e ithelu with goblet cells b basal lamina c) thick lamina propria (connective tissue base of an epithelium) made up of loose connective tissue.” one approac the cartilage there is a layer - abundant in elastic fibers d) scattered lymph nodules in the lamina propia. e) nunerous mucous and serous 1:. glands. ‘ RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM (PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CDLUHNAR) CELL TYPES l) Ciliated columnar cells. Cilia beat toward pharynx. Keep the system clear of debris. 2) Goblet cell. nucleus and E. R. basally situated while apical cytoplasm is filled with mucus granules. These cells produce the fluid which covers the surface. 3) Non-ciliated columnar cell with micro-villus border. These are mainly gobl cells which have secreted their mucus. A small percentage of these cells may be receptors. 4) Basal Cells. a) undifferentiated stem cell progenitor of other cell types. b) grannulated cell which be an effector type involved in co-ordinating the secretion of others. Granules are catecholomines. 5) Hell developed basal lamina Bronchi rtilage becomes irregular plates instead of C-shaped rings. As the passages become smaller the cartilage becomes less and less and finally disappears. 2) Epithelium similar to that of trachea. 3) Smooth muscle interspersed between cartilage. Increases as cartilage disappears. 4) Elastic fibers of submucosa increases. Brohchioles 1) Less than a mm in diameter. 2) Cartilage absent and replaced by muscle bundles. 3) £pithelium become simple columnarciliated. Goblet cells decrease in number and finally disappear. . mut- Movement of Ribs in Ins iration Upper - pump handle motion Lower - bucket handle motion Muscles of respiration iaphragm abdominal muscles .scalene muscles of neck Forced Inspiration serratus anterior serratus posterior superior and inferior postvertebral muscles intercostals sternocleidomastoid pectoralis major and minor Forced Expiration Latissimuss dorsi coronal view Parts of Diaphragm Central tendon Right crus Left crus Medial arcuate ligament Lateral arcuate ligament Costal origin mm‘uN-fi . I C C O I Opgnings for esophagus - TlO IVC - T8 aorta o'TlZ At the end of expiration the domes the diaphragm rise to the 4th ente space on the right and the 5th rib on the left Note action of diaphragm in corona section Gas exchange - Ideal Anatomy - trachea bronchi - mucous lined. cilia bronchioles alveoli - 300 million ducts and sacs Condition of air rich blood supply of mucous membranes'of the nose. mouth. and pharynx warms air make more moist air 37° C H20 saturated P520 = 47 mmHg during expiration t and moisture recovered by mucous cold day - water vapor - runny nose ciliated cells trachea. bronchi. and the bronchioles l cm/min speed of particles being more toward larynx 1110de cam ‘ P1611173) liquid interface; provides very little friction Lungs - plan-a Mechanics diaphragm contracts 1.5 cm dro increase thoracic volumelpressure En. deep breathing 10 cm ) external intercostals assist in inspiration during quiet breathing elastic recoil forces the air out exercise internal intercostals - compress thoracic cavity pressure duringmaxaercise -80= 680 (Hal-4860 max breathing d exercise - up to 10% .-.5102uptake- mlofoz air resistance to flow 2-3 times greater breathing through nose than through mouth ...
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Respiratory_system - THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONDUCTIVE...

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