PHSYCH100exam1review - Module 3 Biological psychology a...

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Module 3 Biological psychology – a branch of psych concerned with the links bet bio and behavior Neuron. A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrite- the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon – the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Action potential- a neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane. Threshold- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. Myelin- a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons ;enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next. Synapse- the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft. Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons, When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing where that neuron will generate a neural impulse. Acetylcholine enables muscle action, learning and memory (undersupply=Alzheimer’s) Dopamine influences movement learning attention emotion (excess=schizophrenia, lack of=Parkinson’s) Serotonin affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (undersupply=depression)
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Norepinephrine helps control alertness and arousal (undersupply=depress mood) GABA a major inhibitory neurotransmitter (undersupply= seizures, tremors, insomnia) Glutamate a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory (oversupply= over stimulate brain, producing migraines/seizures) Endorphins - like morphine within, natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure Motor neuron- carries outgoing info from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. Reflex-a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus,
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Ryan during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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PHSYCH100exam1review - Module 3 Biological psychology a...

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