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Day_7_April_22_Lecture_Notes - CULTURE(chapter 2 textbook p...

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Unformatted text preview: CULTURE (chapter 2 textbook) ( p ) Konstadinos G. Goulias Source: National Geographic 1 Culture is: A way of life y Behavioral pattern g Common understandings Social system Visible and invisible Tangible and intangible Learned (imitation, instruction) Historical roots Non dictated by natural environment 2 Culture experience and learning are: Influenced by position in society Indoctrination depends on social group Change during our life course Personal biographies It is influenced by Gender Race Social S i l group Education Etc etc etc 3 Example 1 Advertized Version of Culture Often has specific objectives (tourism) Showcases part of the culture Sh f h l Korean Cultural video.flv Components of Culture Culture Traits = units of learned behavior (language, tools, games, etc) Objects Techniques Beliefs Attitudes Culture Complex = functionally related culture traits form a complex Measurement of wealth Religious complexes Business complexes Automobile complex Culture System = larger spatial reality and generalization Americans Europeans Components of Culture Culture Region = portion of the earth's surface g p with people sharing recognizable cultural characteristics (administration, religion, language) Culture Realm = a set of culture regions with some fundamental uniformity Globalization what does it do to "local" cultures local Example of European Union Belgium Example of US Culture Realms (Figure 2.4 textbook) Gross approximation! 7 Example 2 Goa, Goa India Heavily depens on viewpoints Harm de Blij, On Location i G L i in Goa, India.flv Interaction of People and Environment Environments as Controls E Environmental D l Determinism = physical h l environment shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts Possibilism = people are the dynamic forces of cultural development Human Impacts powerful destroyers or benevolent giants? b l t i t? Cultural Landscape = tangible physical record of each culture 9 HOW DID WE GET HERE? 10 FIRST EVIDENCE OF OUR ORIGINS see https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html 11 Roots of Culture & Progression 1 Paleolithic (11,000 years ago) Hunter-Gatherers Plant and animal foodstuffs following a yearly cycle Diversity influenced by environmental differences Small groups > natural environment produced enough for them Language religion trade permanent settlements Language, religion, trade, settlements, and social structure Roles in society based on age and gender Exist until today (bushmen) 12 Roots of Culture & Progression 2 Mesolithic (11,000 to 5,000 years ago) Gl i l recession warmer & f Glacial i forests t Population growth -> demand for more foodstuffs Low carrying capacity of hunter-gatherers Carrying capacity = # persons supportable by a unit of area with available technologies Depletion of naturally produced food Need to reach other places In Europe -> food production Domestication (see next) ( ) Need for tools and labor division Not all people made the tradition -> early cultural divergence 13 Domestication 14 Roots of Culture & Progression 3 Neolithic (8,000 to 3,500 B.C. in Near East) Refined domestication R fi d d m ti ti Sedentary population Culture changed faster g Revolutionary technologies (utensils, clay, weaving, construction techniques, mining) Social stratification based on labor and role Specialized professions (farmers, hunters, warriors, priests, metalworkers, potters, sailors, merchants, scribes) Restructuring of environment Modify plants and animals, manage soil, terrain, water, and resources 15 Culture Hearths 1 Centers of Innovation and Invention Culture traits d ff d to other places C l diffused h l Also viewed as "cradle" of civilizations Believed to be unrelated/independent Different ecological circumstances @ different times Unique cultural traits Urban forms different evolutions Developed astronomy+math = calendar Writing! 16 17 Culture Hearths 2 Multilineal Evolution Diffusionism= spatial spread from key sites Trade routes Immigration Cultural Convergence = sharing of technologies, technologies organizational structures, and structures cultural traits Role of communication & transportation 18 The Structure of Culture Ideological Subsystem ( y g y (mythologies, g , theologies, legends, literature, philosophy, folk culture) M if Mentifacts = ideas and b li f id d beliefs Technological Subsystem (material objects) Artifacts = tools and instruments Sociological Subsystem (patterns of interactions) ) Sociofacts = family, church assembly, parliament Cultural Integration = the three-way interlocking to f i l ki form a recognizable unity i bl i Artifact-Mentifact- Sociofact? Artifact-Mentifact-of Sociofact? CLASSIC CAR COMMERCIALS 1950 60's flv 60 s.flv Culture Change (always changing) Can be a slow gradual process or abrupt revolution or both Change happens by: Innovation Diffusion Acculturation 21 Innovation Innovation = change from ideas within a social group and adopted by the group Social innovation = to meet emerging people social needs ( i environment) i l d (equity, i ) Today: Sustainability and Greening of everything 22 Cultural Diffusion Spread of culture Mechanism for cultural change g Relocation diffusion = people move to another area and bring with them artifacts, mentifacts, and sociofacts Expansion diffusion = spread from one place to another Contagious = almost uniform spread Hierarchical = jumping to large urban areas Stimulus = imitative behavior but modified Another taxonomy: Direct diffusion = similar to conatgious conatgious. Forced diffusion. = by war Indirect diffusion = ideas diffuse through a mediating agent (e.g., TV games, survivor etc). The Diffusion f Wal-Mart d E Th Diff i of W l M t and Economies of Density.flv i f D it fl 23 Source: University of Texas 24 ...
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