REQUIRED_Notes_on_activity_based_approaches

REQUIRED_Notes_on_activity_based_approaches - Goulias notes...

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Goulias notes for Geography 5. Konstadinos G. Goulias, Ph.D. 1 Reading Material Notes on Activity-based Approaches for Geography 5 – Spring 2008 (based on a report to SCAG for new model development) The foundation of activity-based approaches is in the 1970s with contributions from three perspectives. Chapin’s research (1974), provides one of the first comprehensive studies about time allocated to activity in space and time, is also credited for motivating the foundations of activity-based approaches to travel demand analysis. His focus has been on the propensity of individuals to participate in activities and travel linking their patterns to urban planning. In about the same period Becker also developed his theory of time allocation from a household production viewpoint (Becker, 1976) applying economic theory in a non-market sector and demonstrating the possibility of formulating time allocation models using economics reasoning (i.e., activity choice). In parallel another approach was developing in geography and Hagerstrand’s seminal publication on time space geography (1970) presents the foundations of the approach. The idea of constraints in the movement of persons was taken a step further by this time-geography school in Lund. In that framework, the movement of persons among locations can be viewed as their movement in space and time under external constraints. Movement in time is viewed as the one way (irreversible) movement in the path while space is viewed as a three dimensional domain. It provides the third base about constraints in human paths in time and space for a variety of planning horizons. These are capability constraints (e.g., physical limitations such as speed); coupling constraints (e.g., requirements to be with other persons at the same time and place); and authority constraints (e.g., restrictions due to institutional and regulatory contexts such as the opening and closing hours of stores). Figure 1 provides a pictorial representation in space and time of a typical activity-travel pattern of two persons (P1 and P2) and the three types of constraints. H indicates home, W indicates work, L indicates leisure, and S indicates shopping.
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Goulias notes for Geography 5. Konstadinos G. Goulias, Ph.D. 2 Figure 1 A two-person (P1 and P2) activity-travel pattern and the time and space limits imposed by constraints (source: Pribyl, 2004) Cullen and Godson (1975) also reviewed by Arentze and Timmermans (2000) and Golledge and Stimpson (1997) appear to be the first researchers attempting to bridge the gap between the motivational (Chapin) approach to activity participation and the constraints (Hagerstrand) approach by creating a model that depicts a routine and deliberated approach to activity analysis. The Cullen and Dobson study also defined many terms often used today in activity-based approaches. For example, each activity (stay-home, work, leisure, and shopping) is an episode characterized by start time, duration, and end time. Activities are also classified into fixed and flexible and they can be engaged alone or with others.
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REQUIRED_Notes_on_activity_based_approaches - Goulias notes...

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