Test 2 review - Age of the Universe 4.6billion Earth 4.6...

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Age of the Universe: 4.6billion “ Earth 4.6 billion “ first life 3.8 billion Preterozoic “ first Eucaryotic cell 2.5 billion Paleozoic “ multicellular organism 2.5 billion Paleozoic Early Earth’s Atmosphere Contained: Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide DIDN’T Contain: Oxygen Stanley Miller experiment: amino acids Procaryotes vs. Eucaryotes: no nucleus/neucleus Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs: Aerobic Respiration vs. anaerobic respiration: Lynn Margulis and endosybiont hypothesis: mitochondria and chloroplasts once free living 6 Kingdoms and representatives of each: Viruses and Bacteria Viruses: Bacteriophage: a group of viruses that infect bacterial cells Retro viruses: contain only protein and RNA Mutate easily Lytic Cycle: tells host cell what to do; cell starts working for the virus – eventually bursts Lysogenic Cycle: longer Bacteria: Shapes: Coccus-round Bacillus- rods Spirillum- serpent like Colonies: Diplococcus- OO Streptococcus-OOOOOOOOOOO Staphylococcus- OO OOOO OOOOOO Streptobacillus- 0000000 Gram + (purple) Gram – (pink) Endospores- some bacteria form; can withstand heat, cold, drought, chemicals Antibiotics Pasteur- bacteria = disease Koch- pathogenic bacteria
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Jenner- small pox vaccine Cell structure: chromosome, cell membrane, ribosomes, cell wall sometimes with enclosing capsule, flagella, pila Reproduction: Binary fission & conjugation Bacterial Nutrition Heterotrophic- parasitic(live on living things)& saprophytic(live on something nonliving)
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