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Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide Sociology...

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Final Exam Study Guide Sociology 182 Summer A, 2007 I. The Nation-State A. The Challenge of Globalization - Is the Nation-State disappearing or weakening in the face of globalization? 1. “The Political Dimension of Globalization,” by A. Steger a) The Westphalian model of the nation-state i) the world is divided into sovereign territorial states which recognize no higher power ii) the law is in the hands of individual states iii) international law is oriented towards the establishment of minimal co-existence and relations are only endured as to meet the goals of the states objectives iv) responsibility for cross-border wrongful acts is a private matter concerning only those affected v) all states are regarded as equal before the law, but legal rules do not take account of asymmetrics of power vi) differences among states are often settled by force; the principle of effective power holds away. Virtually no legal fetters exists exist to curb the resort to force; international legal standards afford only minimal protection. vii) the collective priority of all states should be to minimize the impediments to state freedom. b) The development of international organizations: Has the U.N. encroached on national sovereignty? Since the development of the United Nations, after World War II, the United States has continually used the UN as instrument to promote its own interest. As a permanent member and as a main beneficiary, the US almost always gets its way in the UN. For example, after the 9/11 attack, despite the many countries that denied their support to US to invade Iraq, the US was able to get the backing of the UN. This fact de-legitimizes the UN as a global political institution. States wish to be independent and viewed as their own nation. They don’t want to be a mere unit in a global village.
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c) The effect of global trade and commerce on national political institutions. Steger tends to downplay these effects by claiming a few big nations dominate the global economy. It’s the small developing countries that are losing their sovereignty to first world capital. Global trade and commerce has further the decline of territorial borders. This is important for global political and social change. Political power is expressed by global networks, states interrelated with one another. Nation-states have lost their dominant role in the global economy. As the borders become more irrelevant, these states become less capable of managing social life within. They are at the mercy of global capital markets. The political actions of these states have been limited to the discretion of global markets whereby supranational institutions are in control. d) Immigration and national security (the war on terror) are major barriers to political globalization One of the keys to globaliznationalism is by having a controlled border. Easy illegal access to our country lessens, to some degree, national sovereignty. By doing this however, globalization is blocked and capitalists no longer have a source of cheap labor. So what do they do?
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