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SOCIOLOGY 101 Notes

SOCIOLOGY 101 Notes - SOCIOLOGY 101 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGICAL...

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SOCIOLOGY 101 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGICAL THOUGHT Enlightenment Philosophy Reason and progress were key to points of Enlightenment o Human beings are moving in a  positive  direction  Science   was the instrument to get the people out of the dark ages laws of nature could be revealed through reason o makes predictable thorugh understanding of science Enlightenment thinkers at the time were  deists  o they believe in God but did not believe him to intervene with human  affairs; which was contradictory to medieval times They wanted to recast the world on rational principles One has the ability to run their own affairs No other society offered  radical individualism  during the 17 th  and 18 th  centuries  o concept of the individual was born; one was able to be free from group    Counter-Enlightenment  During the 19 th  century; this was the reaction to enlightenment o Positivism from enlightenment began to fade after  French Revolution The rapid social changes greatly tampered human reason o Inability to control change caused for new thinking  o We became victims of social change, prisoners of society-controlled by  society  o Attempt to change society would be catastrophic o Counter-enlightenment thinkers opposed revolutionary change  Rejected too much individualism; we cannot be free – harmful to  society and to selves  Modern man was increasingly becoming unsure of himself o From this emerged for sociological thinking CE thinkers emphasized on limits  o Our decisions are only free to a limited point o Decisions are shared by group life, external limits – family, ethnic, status The knowledge of limits can lead to power
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August Comte Work at its peak 1820’s to 30’s “Father of sociology” coined the term soc; grew up in France and rejected the  revolution; was a conservative Married ex-prostitute, then married  Claudine Diveaux  who died few months later o from then on dedicated his life’s work to her Eventually became a feminist o believed women were far superior to male intellect; society should adopt  to feminine mentality Lost his prestige after his 2 nd  book “Sanctity of Chastity Doctrine” Comte’s evolutionary theory o laws of 3 stages Theological stage Metaphysical stage Positivist stage o Relationship between stages  and social organization Theological = militarism Metaphysical = nationalism Positivist = industrialism Idea of evolution was predominant in 19 th  century o Applied to society before nature, before Darwin We were moving closer to positive mind set
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