Regeneration_02_06 - Plasticity and Regeneration Lecture 2...

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1 Plasticity and Regeneration Lecture 2 Wednesday, April 12, 2006 James R. Unnerstall, Ph.D. Reactive astrocytosis and abortive inflammatory responses have been identified as factors that limit the regenerative response in the CNS. Limiting the inflammatory response through the administration of steroids, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agents and anti-oxidants have been shown to promote recovery from CNS neural injury. On the other hand, reactive astrocytes express a variety of growth-promoting factors. Further, molecular differences have been observed in reactive astrocytes depending upon their proximity to the damage site or the nature of the local environment (e.g. gray vs. white matter). Harnessing the expression of these factors can provide clues to strategies that can be used to promote neural regeneration. Growth factors can be "tropic" (promoting differentiation, guidance and synaptic targeting) or "trophic" (maintaining neuronal viability and survival). Most growth factors are releasable substances similar to neurotransmitters and can be tropic or trophic depending upon the stage of maturation or physiological need of a particular system. Membrane associated proteins as well as glycoproteins and proteoglycans that comprise the basal lamina or extracellular matrix can play significant roles in supporting and promoting the guidance and maintenance of neuronal connections. Tropic and trophic substances can be classified as being either target-derived (promoting specific cell-cell synaptic connections), paracrine (promoting general cellular viability and maintaining projection pathways) or autocrine (promoting self-viability and phenotypic expression). o Target-derived and paracrine-like growth factors include the neurotrophins (nerve growth factor, BDNF, NT3), insulin-like growth factors (IGF1), fibroblasts growth factors (FGFs), glial-derived growth factors (GDNFs) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Cytokines and lymphokines (e.g. transforming growth factors, interleukins, tumor necrosis factors) can also have specific neurotrophic functions. o
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course BIOS 286 taught by Professor Murphy during the Spring '06 term at Ill. Chicago.

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Regeneration_02_06 - Plasticity and Regeneration Lecture 2...

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