Forensic Science 9 - Forensic Science 9/2/15 Criminalistics...

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Forensic Science 9/2/15Criminalistics bookLucy stone hall a353What is Forensic Science?
oBiology/pathologyoToxicologyoAnthropology/ odontology/ entomologyoFirearms, toolmarksoGun shot residue, Arson, ExplosivesoFingerprints, FootprintsoQuestioned documentsWhy is forensic science neededoProve or disprove a connection between people, objects, placesoSituations are not always what they seemoCannot rely on eyewitness testimony or memoryWrongly triedoEyewitness 71%oFalse Testimony Witness 17%oFalse Confession 12%Roles of a forensic ScientistRecognition of physical evidenceCollection and preserveDocumentationInterpretation of resultsReportion resultsProviding expert witness testimonyRemember to remain unbiasedClass vs individual characteristicsoYou are identifying a class of evidence. The narrowing of suspectsoPoint to one person for individual characteristicsLocaard exchange principle: “ objects or surfaces that come into contact willexchange trace evidence”oPaint scrape on a hit and run vehicleoHomicide victims blood on suspects clothingoSemen of a rape victim
History and Development of Forensic Science-Forensics comes from latin word forensic meaning forum-Mathieu orfila-Father of toxicology-Alphonse Bertillon ( 1853-1914)-Father of AnthropometryoDeveloped a system to distinguish one individual person from anotherbased on certain body measurements-AnthropometryoFirst method of criminal identification thought to be reliable; based ona criteria of body measurements-After 1883 the system was adopted throughout Europe-System was abandoned because fingerprinting identification was simpler,more reliable-Francis Galtono1822-1911oFather of fingerprintingoDeveloped fingerprinting as a way to uniquely identify individuals-Leone Latteso1887-1954oFather of bloodstain IdentificationoHe developed a procedure for determining the blood type ( A,B, AB, O)of a dried blood stain-Calvin Goddardo1891-1955oFather of BallisticsoDeveloped the technique to examine bullets, using a comparisonmicroscope, to determine whether or not a particular gun fired thebullets-Walter McCroneo1916-2002oFather of microscopic forensicsoHe developed and applied his microscope techniques to examineevidence in countless court cases.-Edmond Locardo1877-1966oFather of the crime laboIn 1910, he started the 1stcrime lab in an attic of a police stationoInstitute of criminalistics in France-Legal RequirementsoSearch and seizureIs the search legalWas the evidence seized legallyoDocumentationAs the item was foundNo going back to fill in the gapsCrime sceneNoted measurements
PhotographssketchesoIdentificationPrevent cpnfusionEach piece of evidence must be uniqueCase numberDate/timeItem numberinititalsoChain of custodyEssential to introduce evidence in courtWho has possessionSecure environment

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Term
Spring
Professor
smith
Tags
DNA, Crime scene, DNA profiles, individual characteristics

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