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Study Guide Exam 3 329

Study Guide Exam 3 329 - PSYC 329 FINAL EXAM 1 A What is...

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PSYC 329 FINAL EXAM 1. A. What is periodicity pitch and how does it relate to the missing fundamental? Periodicity Pitch : the pitch perceived without the fundamental frequencies -The fundamental frequencies determines pitch - Changes the timbre slightly but no effect on pitch; the fact that the pitch does not change is called Periodicity pitch or Effect of the missing fundamental B. Why can I recognize my friend’s voice on the phone, when some of the fundamental frequencies are missing? ~ The perceived pitch of the tone does not change. This is called periodicity pitch . C. What are the theoretical implications of periodicity pitch for place coding in audition? Coding for frequency, Place code and timing code Place Code: different frequencies are signaled by neurons in different places in the auditory system; different placement of receptors in cochlea o Detecting moderate to high frequencies o The system by which info about different frequencies is coded (i.e. neural representation of info) by different locations on the basilar membrane o Good evidence is seen for place coding with cochlear implants (an electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable a deaf person to hear) because most speech sounds are of higher frequencies, and cannot be represented by rate coding D. What practical applications does periodicity pitch have? 1. Cheap radios: if it cannot produce certain frequency, periodicity pitch helps you perceive it 2. Telephones 2. What would happen if optic nerve were re-routed to auditory cortex? “hear” visual input? Mriganka Sur: Using experimental and theoretical approaches, his laboratory studies developmental plasticity and the dynamic changes in mature cortical networks during information processing, learning and memory. His laboratory has discovered fundamental principles by which neurons of the cerebral cortex are wired during development and change dynamically in adulthood. In one series of experiments, he “rewired” the brain to explore how the environment influences the development of cortical circuits. The retina , which normally projects to the visual cortex , was induced to project to structures that normally process hearing. Visual input altered the development of neuronal connections in the auditory cortex , thus enabling animals to use their "hearing" cortex to "see." 3. Name the three axes for localizing sound and for each, discuss what cues allow us to localize sound in each dimension (be sure to state for which axis individual cues operate). 1
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A. Binaural Cues Azimuth: (Left/Right) Horizontal axis There exist neurons in auditory cortex tuned to - interaural time differences - interaural level differences Similar to V1 cells tuned to particular binocular disparities.
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