Organismic Biology Notes Archive

Organismic Biology Notes Archive - Organismic Biology...

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Organismic Biology Wednesday January 23 2008 Handouts: Received syllabus containing class and text information. Lecture: Topic is surface area/ volume, Osmosis/Diffusion, Conformity/Regulation, and Homeostasis. A large object has a smaller surface area to volume ratio than a small object. Small objects have very large surface area to volume ratios. This is important to our study because cells are small objects with large surface areas. The large surface area is necessary for exchange of food and waste across the cell membrane. Osmotic pressure = Concentration * Gas law constant * temperature. Fick’s equation = J = A * D(OC) Conformity versus regulation: Cold blooded animals are also called ectotherms or polikilotherms. These animals have a physiology that is similar to their environment. The maintenance of homeostasis: Maintenance of a constant internal environment. Upper critical temperature and lower critical temperatures are the temperatures at which the organism first experiences problems in functioning. Thermoneutral temperature is in between. BMR = Basal metabolic rate Mass specific BMR- Mac Kleiber Mass specific SMR Max Kleiber determined that BMR is an allometric (out of proportion) function. P = (A)(W^.75) Heat is lost faster in small animals because their surface area to volume ratio is greater. Maintenance of body temperature is done either by shivering, or brown fat thermogenesis. Adrenaline/Epinephrine affects the mitochondria in brown fat, opening a channel. In this channel, protons escape and instead of producing ATP, the energy is released as heat.
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The hormone Thyroxin has a calorogenic effect. Friday January 25 2008 Handouts- None Lecture: Today’s Topic: Levels of organization, tissue description and function, Hon-C and Hox- gene, Introduction to neurons. (We did not cover the last two. We stopped at tissue description and function, around muscle cells) The lowest level of organization to the highest level of organization: Chemical, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organism Epithelial tissues Simple Squamus Epithelial Stratified Squamus Epithelial Simple Columnar Epithelial Stratified Columnar Epithelial Pseudo Stratified Ciliated Epithelial Cuboidal Epithelial
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1) Skeletal 2) Cardiac 3) Smooth Muscle Skeletal muscle fibers are striated and contain many mitochondria and many nuclei. Their purpose is to contract. The striations are myofilaments. Cardiac muscle cells contain intercalated disks and are also striated. The sinoatrial node acts as a pacemaker and causes the cardiac muscle cells to contract. Smooth muscle cells are found in blood vessels, the trachea/bronchi, and digestive tract. Monday, January 28, 2008 Handouts: None Lecture- Today’s topic: Finish smooth muscle, connective tissue, Hox-Hom-C gene (we also did a little bit of neurology) Things to update: The diagram I have of smooth muscle did not include the following: The small segments are not cell walls. They are myofilaments. Connective tissue:
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Organismic Biology Notes Archive - Organismic Biology...

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