Personality Disorders Powerpoint

Personality Disorders Powerpoint - Personality Disorders...

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Unformatted text preview: Personality Disorders Abnormal Psychology UCLA Basic Terms and Concepts Personality : consistent pattern of emotional and behavioral characteristics; more ‘intra-personal’ Personality traits : individual components thought to comprise personality (e.g., extroversion) Temperament : early ‘precursor’ to adult personality; general ‘affectivity’ (positive/negative, intensity, arousal, etc.) Character : personality + moral definitions Personality Disorders (PD) Enduring, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive patterns of behavior and inner experience Personality disorders are totality of emotion and behavior Patterns present in at least 2 areas: Cognition Emotions Relationships Impulse control Coded on Axis II Often comorbid with Axis I disorders More severe symptoms and poorer outcome when comorbid Key Features of the DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Inter-rater Reliability for the Personality Disorders Test-retest Stability for Personality Disorders and MDD Classifying Personality Disorders DSM-IV-TR categorical approach Classifies in 3 clusters: Cluster A Odd/Eccentric Cluster B Dramatic/Erratic Cluster C Anxious/Fearful Diagnostic reliability Initially poor; improved since DSM-III Test-retest reliability (diagnostic stability) ½ of those initially diagnosed with PD did not receive same diagnosis 1 year later (Shea et al., 2002) Gender bias Certain diagnoses applied more often to men, others to women Rates of Personality Disorders in the Community Dimensional Approach: Five-Factor Model Five-factor model (McCrae & Costa, 1990) Personality traits form a continuum Individuals with PDs endorse the extremes Dimensional approach involves rating each individual on the five factors Avoids applying a categorical label which may not completely fit Sample Items from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory assessing Five- Factor Model Five Factor Model of Personality High Personality trait Low Curious Openness Conventional Reliable Conscientiousness Unreliable Sociable Extraversion Shy-quiet Good natured Agreeableness Uncooperative Nervous Neuroticism Calm Circumplex Models of Personality Genetic Contribution to Personality Relationship Extraversion Neuroticism MZ Raised Together .51 .46 DZ Raised Together .18 .20 MZ Raised Apart .38 .38 DZ Raised Apart .05 .23 Features Common to Most Personality Disorders Shared features Usually onset by adolescence Perceive their traits as being ego-syntonic Children more at risk: conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, immaturity Disrupted personal relationships occur in all the disorders Problems are longstanding Other disorders coexist Disorders have patterns that perpetuate the problems Disorders differentiated on the basis of behavior The problem behaviors are very resistant to change. Odd/Eccentric Cluster: Paranoid Personality Disorder Suspicious Secretive; reluctant to confide in...
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Personality Disorders Powerpoint - Personality Disorders...

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