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Chapter 17: Blood AssignmentFor this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color. Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors.There is a tutorial on blood cells in Blackboard under the Lab Tutorial button. Useit to study the different kinds of blood cells. Under the External Links buttonBlood Functions: Understand the following functions of Blood.i) Transport Nutrients, Hormones, Wastesii) Regulates Body Temperatureiii) Provides Protection (Immune Response, Hemostasis)Blood Composition: write a short description of each of the following components of bloodPlasma – A straw-colored, sticky fluid that is about 90% water and contains over 100 differentdissolved solutes that include nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cellactivity, proteins and electrolytes. Electrolytes which are inorganic ions comprise mostof the solutes.Proteins – Makes up 8% of plasma weight and includes Albumin, Globulins and Fibrinogens; allof which are produced by the liver. Albumins make up 60% of the plasma proteins,Globulins (alpha, beta and gamma) make up 36% of the plasma proteins andFibrinogen makes up 4% of the plasma proteins.Electrolytes – Most abundant solutes with cations that include sodium, potassium, calcium andmagnesium; anions include chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. Theyhelp to maintain the plasma osmotic pressure and normal blood pH.Gases – Respiratory gases include O2and CO2. O2mostly bound to hemoglobin inside RBC’swhile CO2is transported in that form or dissolved as bicarbonate ion or bound to RBC’s.Water – Accounts for 90% of plasma’s volume that absorbs heat and acts as a dissolving andsuspending medium for solutes of blood.Nutrients – Materials absorbed from the digestive tract and transported for use throughout thebody and include glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, triglycerides,cholesterol and vitamins.Wastes – By-products of cellular metabolism and includes urea, uric acid, creatinine andammonium salts.Formed Elements (cells): Briefly describe the functions for the following cells:1
Table 17.2 on page 647 in the textbook gives you a summary of the formed elements of the blood.Erythrocytes – Transports O2and CO2.Leukocytes – These cells are crucial to our body’s defense against disease and are divided intotwo major categories, namely, Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) andAgranulocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes). Platelets – Cytoplasmic fragments that seal small tears in blood vessels and are instrumental inblood clotting.Red Blood Cell (RBC) = Erythrocyte:Figure 17.7 on page 638 in the textbook reviews the life cycle of RBC’sRed blood cells (erythrocytes) are biconcave disks and this shape increases the surface area of the cell and maximizes diffusion of gases. Watch the hemoglobin animation in the course documents.