BIO NOTES - BIO NOTES Circulatory System and Heart...

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BIO NOTES Circulatory System and Heart Disease -Humans are biological machines -Made out of ~2 million proteins The Heart Functions of the heart -pump blood to lungs and to get O2 and get ride of CO2 -pump blood to body cells to supply nutrients and pickup waste Two pumps (right and left side) -each has 2 chambers: Atrium, Ventricle -valves keep the blood flowing one direction From Body Right Atrium Right ventricle Lungs Left Atrium Left Ventricle Body Cardiac Cycle a. atria contract b. ventricle contract c. heart is relaxed Control of heart beat SA node-first contraction AV-node starts ventricle contraction Durkinje fibers- P-Atria contracting QRS-ventricles contracting T- Ventricle relaxing Blood Pressure Capillary System -Blood pressure (outwards) is greater than osmotic pressure (inwards) -So net pressure is outwards and water moves out to cells -blood pressure (outwards) is less than osmotic pressure (inwards) -So net pressure is inwards and water moves into capillary High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Damage to Arteries Deposition of cholesterol in arteries Heart disease and stroke Blood Pressure -measuring pressure on the arteries caused by heart -Systolic pressure- ventricles contracting -Diastolic pressure- heart at rest -optimal blood pressure 120/80mm -high 140/90mm or greater Treatment for high blood pressure -loose weight -exercise -eat healthy
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-limit sodium -drug therapy - Diuretics to reduce fluid and blood volume - Beat blockers to block hormone that cause heart to beat faster Diet and heart disease High Intake of saturated fat Increased LDL:HDL ration Increased disposition of cholesterol in arteries of heart Blockage of arteries and death of heart muscle Cholesterol -LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) “bad”-deposits fatty particles in blood vessels Forms plaque blocks arteries -HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) “good”- removes fatty particles Recommended levels <200mg/dL LDL<130 HDL.45 USDA vs. Mediterranean Diet Rational for Med. Diet -Men there had lower heart disease -Ate little red meat. .much of fat was olive oil -But also worked in fields. .so exercised more -was it due to diet or exercise or both? The Lyon Diet Heart Study 1994 -subjects with heart disease ate Med. Diet -Had 50-70% reduced risk of 2 nd heart attack Heart Disease and Women -Women-heart attacks 10-20 yrs later, but 1 st is more fatal -Many do not experience same symptoms as men (pain in chest, arm) bc spasms of vessels (not block arties) may cause -1 in 5 will die with in 1 year of diagnosis (older and disease more advanced) -twice as many women tend to be disabled by heart failure What can you do to reduce cardiovascular disease? -Stop smoking-triples chance for heart attack -lose weight-excess fat (esp around middle) -Lower LDL and raise HDL-HDL may be better predictor -control blood pressure-makes heart work harder -don’t count on hormones-HRT can increase risk of attack -reduces stress Smoking Emphysema and Lung Cancer Why and how do humans breath? Muscles contraction uses ATP
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BIO NOTES - BIO NOTES Circulatory System and Heart...

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