Ch 19 - Chapter Nineteen The Incorporation of America,...

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Chapter Nineteen The Incorporation of America, 1865— 1900
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Part One: Introduction
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The Incorporation of America, 1865-1890 What does this painting indicate about the incorporation of America?
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Chapter Focus Questions How and why was U.S. involvement in the What led to the rise of big business and the formation of the national labor movement? How was southern society transformed? What caused the growth of cities? What was the Gilded Age? How did education change? How did commercial amusements and organized sports develop?
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Part Two: American Communities
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Packingtown, Chicago, Illinois Packingtown mirrored the industrial age. It attracted immigrants from all over Europe, offering them jobs based on skill, tenure in America, and low wages. The immigrant groups settling in the Chicago neighborhood maintained their ethnic identities and institutions. The one common meeting place was the saloon. The meatpacking houses were a model of monopoly capitalism, with huge, specialized factories that polluted the Chicago River and air. Spurred by technology, the Chicago meatpacking companies controlled all aspects of the industry.
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Part Three: The Rise of Industry, the Triumph of Business
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A Revolution in Technology The post-Civil War era saw a tremendous boom in business and technology. Inventors like Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison brought new products to Americans. By 1900, Americans had produced over 4,000 cars. In 1903, the Wright Brothers pioneered airplane flight. Railroads stimulated development creating a national market. Industry grew at a pace previously unimaginable.
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Patterns of Industry Map: Patterns of Industry, 1900, p. 568 Industrial manufacturing concentrated in the Northeast and Midwest.
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Mechanization Takes Command The second industrial revolution was based on the application of new technology to increase labor productivity and the volume of goods. By the early 20th century, the United States produced 1/3 of the world’s industrial goods. Continuous machine production characterized many industries. Coal provided the energy for this second industrial revolution. New technologies increased productivity and the volume of goods. Assembly line production, beginning with meat-packing, spread throughout American industry.
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New techniques for marketing and merchandising distributed the growing volume of goods. Rural free delivery enabled Sears and Montgomery Wards to thrive and required that these companies set up sophisticated ways of reaching their customers. Chain stores developed in other retail areas, frequently specializing in specific consumer goods. Department stores captured the urban market.
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Ch 19 - Chapter Nineteen The Incorporation of America,...

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