CH 20 - Chapter Twenty Commonwealth and Empire, 1870-1900...

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Chapter Twenty Commonwealth and Empire, 1870—1900
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Part One: Introduction
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Commonwealth and Empire What does this painting suggest and American expansion?
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Chapter Focus Questions What characterized the growth of federal and state governments and the consolidation of the modern two-party system? How did mass protest movements develop? What was the economic and political crisis of the 1890s? How did the United States develop as a world power? What were the causes and outcomes of the Spanish- American War?
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Part Two: American Communities
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The Cooperative Commonwealth Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward described a utopian society in which the economy was under the collective ownership of the people. People enjoyed short workdays, long vacations, and retired at age 45. The Point Loma community, established near San Diego in 1897: was a communal society that provided both private and shared housing where no one earned wages sought self-sufficiency through agriculture received donations from admirers and wealthy members.
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Part Three: Toward a National Governing Class
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The Growth of Government The size and scope of government at all levels grew rapidly during the gilded age. New employees, agencies, and responsibilities changed the character of government. Taxes increased as local governments assumed responsibility for providing such vital services as police, fire protection, water, schools, and parks.
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The Machinery of Politics The federal government developed its departmental bureaucracy. Power resided in Congress and the state legislatures. The two political parties only gradually adapted to the demands of the new era. Political campaigns featured mass spectacles that reflected the strong competition for votes. Political machines financed their campaigns through kickbacks and bribes and insured support by providing services for working-class neighborhoods. Offices were filled by the spoils system that rewarded friends of the winning party.
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The Spoils System and Civil Service Reform In 1885, Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform that created the civil service system and a professional bureaucracy. This effort paralleled similar efforts at professionalism in other fields.
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Part Four: Farmers and Workers Organize their Communities
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Farmers and workers built movements that challenged the existing system. The Grange formed in the 1870s by farmers in the Great Plains and South who suffered boom and bust conditions and natural disasters. Grangers blamed hard times on a band of “thieves in the night,” especially railroads, and pushed through laws regulating shipping rates and other farm costs. Grangers created their own grain elevators and set up
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course AMH 2020 taught by Professor Michelleadams during the Spring '06 term at University of Central Florida.

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CH 20 - Chapter Twenty Commonwealth and Empire, 1870-1900...

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