Ch 21 - Chapter Twenty-One Urban America and the...

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Chapter Twenty-One Urban America and the Progressive Era, 1900—1917
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Part One: Introduction
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Urban America and the Progressive Era What does this painting illustrate about urban America?
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Chapter Focus Questions What were the political, social, and intellectual roots of progressive reform? What tensions existed between social justice and social control? What was the urban scene and the impact of new immigration? How were the working class, women, and African Americans politically active? How was progressivism manifested in national politics?
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Part Two: American Communities
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The Henry Street Settlement House Lillian Wald’s Henry Street Settlement began as a visiting nurse service. At Henry Street, Wald created a community of college- educated women who lived among the urban poor and tried to improve their lives. Most settlement workers did not make a career out of this work, but several of the women went on to become influential political reformers. The workers served the community by promoting health care, cultural activities, and, later, by promoting reform legislation.
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Part Three: The Currents of Progressivism
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Unifying Themes Progressivism drew from deep roots in American communities and spread, becoming a national movement. Progressives articulated American fears of the growing concentration of power and the excesses of industrial capitalism and urban growth. Progressives rejected the older Social Darwinist assumptions in favor of the idea that government should intervene to address social problems. Progressives drew upon evangelical Protestantism, especially the Social Gospel movement, and the scientific attitude to promote social change.
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Women Spearhead Reform Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889. Working there served as an alternative to marriage for educated women who provided crucial services for slum dwellers. Florence Kelley worked there and later wrote reports that influenced labor legislation.
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The Urban Machine Urban political machines were a closed and corrupt system that: offered jobs and other services to immigrants in exchange for votes drew support from businesses and provided kickbacks and protection in return By the early 20th century, machines began promoting welfare legislation, often allying themselves with progressive reformers. But reformers blamed the machines for many urban ills.
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Political Progressivism and Urban Reform Political progressivism arose in cities to combat machines and address deteriorating conditions, such as impure water. They sought professional, nonpartisan administration to improve government efficiency. Following a tidal wave in Galveston, Texas, reformers
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Ch 21 - Chapter Twenty-One Urban America and the...

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