pe notes - Nutrition 1 Basic principles of nutrition o Diet...

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Nutrition 1. Basic principles of nutrition o Diet refers to food selection o Nutrients serve three major roles Growth, repair and maintenance of all body cells Regulation of body processes Supply of energy for cells o Some nutrients can be made by the body 2. 3 essential nutrients: o Carbohydrates o Fats o Proteins 3. Regulator (micronutrients) nutrients: o Minerals o Vitamins o Water 4. With a consistently low quality diet an individual runs the risk of developing a nutrition deficiency 5. Over nutrition o Eating too much food or specific nutrients o Common problem in the US o Can lead to obesity o Some nutrients care toxic in large doses as well Typically linked to vitamin/mineral usage 6. Energy for the body o Energy value of food is measured in calories o Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram o Fat = 9 calories per gram o Protein = 4 calories per gram o Alcohol = 7 calories per gram 7. Carbohydrates o Provide body with energy While body will also run on fat and protein, CHO is preferred source of energy o 55% of total caloric intake should be accounted for by CHO o Classified into simple (sugars) or complex (starch, glycogen, fiber) o Sugars (simple) Glucose (blood sugar) is needed to fuel cells Sources- fruit, syrups, honey Fructose (fruit sugar) occurs naturally in honey Lactose (milk sugar) Sucrose (table sugar) Must be careful not to consume too much sugar in diet (empty calories) Replaces other nutritious foods from diet o Starches (complex) Found in cereal grains, potatoes, and beans Broken down during digestion into glucose units and stored as glycogen in the body Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles Glycogen is broken down and released as glucose in the body when necessary
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o Fiber (complex) Not digested in small intestine Moves through digestive tract relatively unchanged Sources Fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, nuts, beans, and peas Low fiber diets are blamed for intestinal problems Hemorrhoids Colon cancer Divertculosis Certain fibers attract water and aid in the formation of bulky stools Also may be helpful in lowering blood cholesterol levels, a major risk fator for cardiovascular disease Oats, fruits, and vegetables are recommended Help to interfere with absorption of cholesterol in the intestinal tract = reduces cholesterol entering the blood stream 8. Fats o Fats provide flavoring and texture to flood substances o Most Americans consume too much fat, contributing to obesity and cardiovascular disease o Saturated vs. unsaturated fats Saturated fats are derived primarily from animal products (meat, eggs, and dairy products) Also can be found in coconut and palm oils o Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature o Canola, peanut, olive oil, and vegetable oils Mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol o Cholestoral Clogs arteries Leads to cardiovascular disease Fat-related substance found in animal foods
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